And so the Diary ends ……. — Suffragette Diary – Reblog

……… with this poem Life and Death Out of the night that covers me, Black as the pit from pole to pole I thank whatever gods may be For my unconquerable soul. * In the fell clutch of circumstance I have not winced or cried aloud. Under the bludgeonings of chance My head is bloody, […]

via And so the Diary ends ……. — Suffragette Diary

My friend Sally, from the WordPress blog My Beautiful Things, found a Suffragette’s Diary in her father’s papers and has transcribed it.  I had never read this poem before.  I have found it more powerful than the coffee I’m drinking to wake up this morning! Hope you find this the same and will check out the rest of the diary – important piece of history.

https://suffragettediary.wordpress.com/ – main page

Suffragette Diary

On July 11th 2009, while sorting some of my late Father’s papers, I came across an envelope marked Suffragette’s Diary and I began to read. Serendipity indeed – the entries began on July 12th 1909, almost exactly one hundred years ago to the day I discovered it.

What follows is a transcript of the Diary, written by an unknown Suffragette, who was imprisoned in Holloway , along with a number of other window breakers  I have tried to track her down as the last post will explain. What follows is the diary, day by day as written by our Suffragette.

As my Great Grandmother, Mrs Wiseman, was a Suffragette and also imprisoned in Holloway, I have a particular interest. My Great Granny’s name can be found here in the Roll of Honour of Suffragette Prisoners 1905 – 1014

What was a Suffragette?

Suffragette

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Annie Kenney and Christabel Pankhurst used violent tactics in Britain as members of the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU)

Suffragettes were members of women’s organizations in the late-19th and early-20th centuries which advocated the extension of the “franchise“, or the right to vote in public elections, to women. It particularly refers to militants in the United Kingdom such as members of the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU). Suffragist is a more general term for members of the suffrage movement, particularly those advocating Women’s suffrage.

The term suffragette is particularly associated with activists in the British WSPU, led by Emmeline Pankhurst, who were influenced by Russian methods of protest such as hunger strikes. Although the Isle of Man had enfranchised women who owned property to vote in parliamentary (Tynwald) elections in 1881, New Zealand was the first self-governing country to grant all women the right to vote in 1893 when women over the age of 21 were permitted to vote in parliamentary elections.[1] Women in South Australia achieved the same right and became the first to obtain the right to stand for parliament in 1895.[2] In the United States, white women over the age of 21 were allowed to vote in the western territories of Wyoming from 1869 and in Utah from 1870. But by 1903 women in Britain had still not been enfranchised, and Pankhurst had decided the movement would have to become radical and militant if it was going to be effective. The campaign became increasingly bitter, with property damage and hunger strikes being countered by the authorities with jailing and force-feeding, until it was suspended due to the outbreak of war in 1914.

Women in Britain over the age of 30, meeting certain property qualifications, were given the right to vote in 1918, and in 1928 suffrage was extended to all women over the age of 21.[3] Opinion amongst historians today is divided as to whether the militant tactics of the suffragettes helped or hindered their cause.

Origins[edit]

British suffragettes were mostly women from upper- and middle-class backgrounds, frustrated by their social and economic situation. Their struggles for change within society, along with the work of such advocates for women’s rights as John Stuart Mill, were enough to spearhead a movement that would encompass mass groups of women fighting for suffrage. Mill introduced the idea of women’s suffrage on the platform he presented to the British electorate in 1865.[4] He was subsequently joined by numerous men and women fighting for the same cause.

The term “suffragette” was first used as a term of derision by the journalist Charles E. Hands in the London Daily Mail to describe activists in the movement for women’s suffrage, in particular members of the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU).[5] But the women he intended to ridicule embraced the term, saying “suffraGETtes” (hardening the g) implied not only that they wanted the vote, but that they intended to get it.[6]

The National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies, founded in 1897, was formed from local suffrage societies. The union was led by Millicent Fawcett, who believed in constitutional campaigning, issuing leaflets, organising meetings and presenting petitions but the campaign had little effect. In 1903 Emmeline Pankhurst founded a new organisation, the Women’s Social and Political Union. She thought the movement would have to become radical and militant if it was going to be effective. The Daily Mail gave them the name “Suffragettes”.[7]

Some radical techniques used by the suffragettes, especially hunger strikes, were learned from Russian exiles from tsarism who had escaped to England.[8] Many suffragists at the time, and some historians since, have argued that the actions of the militant suffragettes damaged their cause.[9] Opponents at the time saw evidence that women were too emotional and could not think as logically as men.[10][11][12][13][14]

Early 20th century in the UK[edit]

Memorial edition of The Suffragette newspaper dedicated to Emily Davison

From 1909, the “Pank-A-Squith” board game was sold by the WSPU to raise awareness of their campaign and raise money. The name is derived from “Pankhurst”, the surname of the leaders of the WSPU, and Asquith, the surname of the Prime Minister at the time and a largely hated figure by the movement. The board game is set out in a spiral, and players must lead their suffragette figure from their home to parliament, past the obstacles faced from Prime Minister H. H. Asquith and the Liberal government. The People’s History Museum in Manchester has a “Pank-A-Squith” board game on display in the main galleries and replica version for visitors to play.[15]

7 October 1913 edition of The Suffragette

Also in 1909, suffragettes Solomon and McLellan tried an innovative method of potentially obtaining a meeting with Asquith -by sending themselves by Royal Mail courier post. However Downing street was unwilling to accept the parcel.[16]

1912 was a turning point for the British suffragettes as they turned to using more militant tactics, chaining themselves to railings, setting fire to post box contents, smashing windows and occasionally detonating bombs.[17] In 1914, at least seven churches were bombed or set on fire across the United Kingdom, including an explosion in Westminster Abbey aimed at destroying the 700-year-old Coronation Chair, which despite its proximity to the bomb, survived with only minor damage.[18]

One suffragette, Emily Davison, died under the King‘s horse Anmer at The Derby on 4 June 1913. It is debated whether she was trying to pin a “Votes for Women” banner on the King’s horse or not.[19] Many of her fellow suffragettes were imprisoned and refused food as a scare tactic against the government. The Liberal government of the day led by Asquith responded with the Cat and Mouse Act. Another prominent British suffragette, Sophia Duleep Singh, was almost forgotten for 70 years.[20]

Imprisonment[edit]

Emmeline Pankhurst was the most prominent of Britain’s suffragettes.

In the early-20th century until the First World War, approximately one thousand suffragettes were imprisoned in Britain.[21] Most early incarcerations were for public order offences and failure to pay outstanding fines. The first suffragettes to be imprisoned were Christabel Pankhurst (daughter of Emmeline Pankhurst) and Annie Kenney in October 1905.[22] While incarcerated, suffragettes lobbied to be considered political prisoners; with such a designation, suffragettes would be placed in the First Division as opposed to the Second or Third Division of the prison system, and as political prisoners would be granted certain freedoms and liberties not allotted to other prison divisions, such as being allowed frequent visits and being allowed to write books or articles.[23] Because of a lack of consistency between the different courts, suffragettes would not necessarily be placed in the First Division and could be placed in Second or Third Division, which enjoyed fewer liberties.

This cause was taken up by the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU), a large organisation in Britain, that lobbied for women’s suffrage led by militant suffragette Emmeline Pankhurst.[24] The WSPU campaigned to get imprisoned suffragettes recognised as political prisoners. However, this campaign was largely unsuccessful. Citing a fear that the suffragettes becoming political prisoners would make for easy martyrdom,[25] and with thoughts from the courts and the Home Office that they were abusing the freedoms of First Division to further the agenda of the WSPU,[22] suffragettes were placed in Second Division, and in some cases the Third Division, in prisons with no special privileges granted to them as a result.[26]

Arson, property damage and domestic terrorism[edit]

Throughout the woman’s suffrage movement, many tactics were employed in order to achieve the goals of the movement. Throughout Britain, the contents of hundreds of letter boxes were set alight or corrosive acids or liquids poured over the letters and postcards inside, and thousands of shop and office windows were smashed with hammers. Telephone wires were cut, and graffiti slogans began appearing on the streets. Places that wealthy people, typically men, frequented were also burnt and destroyed, including cricket pitches, golf courses and horse racing tracks. Pinfold Manor in Surrey, which was being built for Lloyd-George, was targeted with two bombs on 19/2/13, only one of which exploded, causing significant damage. (In her memoirs, Sylvia Pankhurst claimed that Emily Davison carried out the attack.) There were 250 arson or destruction attacks in a six month period in 1913. Reports exist in the Parliamentary Papers, which includes lists of the ‘incendiary devices’, explosions, artwork destruction (including an axe attack upon a painting of The Duke of Wellington in the National Gallery), arson attacks, window-breaking, post box burning and telegraph cable breaking that occurred during the most militant years from 1910-1914.

Hunger strikes[edit]

Suffragettes were not recognised as political prisoners and many of them staged hunger strikes while they were imprisoned. The first woman to refuse food was Marion Wallace Dunlop, a militant suffragette who was sentenced to a month in Holloway for vandalism in July 1909.[27] Without consulting suffragette leaders such as Pankhurst,[28] Dunlop refused food in protest at being denied political prisoner status. After a 91-hour hunger strike, and for fear of her becoming a martyr,[28] the Home Secretary Herbert Gladstone decided to release her early on medical grounds.[22] Dunlop’s strategy was adopted by other suffragettes who were incarcerated.[29] It became common practice for suffragettes to refuse food in protest for not being designated as political prisoners, and as a result they would be released after a few days and could return to the “fighting line”.[30]

After a public backlash regarding the prison status of suffragettes, the rules of the divisions were amended. In March 1910, Rule 243A was introduced by the Home Secretary Winston Churchill, allowing prisoners in Second and Third Divisions to be allowed certain privileges of the First Division, provided they were not convicted of a serious offence, effectively ending hunger strikes for two years.[31] Hunger strikes began again when Pankhurst was transferred from the Second Division to the First Division, inciting the other suffragettes to demonstrate regarding their prison status.[32]

Militant suffragette demonstrations subsequently became more aggressive,[22] and the British Government took action. Unwilling to release all the suffragettes refusing food in prison,[29] in the autumn of 1909, the authorities began to adopt more drastic measures to manage the hunger-strikers.

Force-feeding[edit]

Poster by “A Patriot”, showing a suffragette prisoner being force-fed, 1910.

In September 1909, the Home Office became unwilling to release hunger-striking suffragettes before their sentence was served.[30] Suffragettes became a liability because if they were to die in custody, the prison would be responsible for their death. Prisons began the practice of force-feeding the hunger strikers through a tube, most commonly via a nostril or stomach tube or a stomach pump.[29] Force-feeding had previously been practised in Britain but its use had been exclusively for patients in hospitals who were too unwell to eat or swallow food. Despite the practice being deemed safe by medical practitioners for sick patients, it posed health issues for the healthy suffragettes.[28]

Memories of Winson Green September 18, 1909; Illustration from Mabel Cappers WSPU prisoners scrapbook

The process of tube-feeding was strenuous without the consent of the hunger strikers, who were typically strapped down and force-fed via stomach or nostril tube, often with a considerable amount of force.[33] The process was painful and after the practice was observed and studied by several physicians, it was deemed to cause both short-term damage to the circulatory system, digestive system and nervous system and long-term damage to the physical and mental health of the suffragettes.[34] Some suffragettes who were force-fed developed pleurisy or pneumonia as a result of a misplaced tube.[35]

Legislation[edit]

In April 1913, Reginald McKenna of the Home Office passed the Prisoners (Temporary Discharge for Ill Health) Act 1913, or the Cat and Mouse Act as it was commonly known. The act made the hunger strikes legal, in that a suffragette would be temporarily released from prison when their health began to diminish, only to be readmitted when she regained her health to finish her sentence.[33] The act enabled the British Government to be absolved of any blame resulting from death or harm due to the self-starvation of the striker and ensured that the suffragettes would be too ill and too weak to participate in demonstrative activities while not in custody.[29] Most women continued hunger striking when they were readmitted to prison following their leave.[36] After the Act was introduced, force-feeding on a large scale was stopped and only women convicted of more serious crimes and considered likely to repeat their offences if released were force-fed.[37]

The Bodyguard[edit]

In early 1913 and in response to the “Cat and Mouse Act”, the WSPU instituted a society of women known as the “Bodyguard” whose role was to physically protect Emmeline Pankhurst and other prominent suffragettes from arrest and assault. Known members included Katherine Willoughby Marshall and Gertrude Harding; Edith Margaret Garrud was their jujutsu trainer. Members of the “Bodyguard” participated in several violent actions against the police in defence of their leaders.[38]

The origin of the “Bodyguard” can be traced to a WSPU meeting at which Garrud spoke. As suffragettes speaking in public increasingly found themselves the target of violence and attempted assaults, teaching jujitsu was a way for women to defend themselves against angry hecklers.[39] Incidents including Black Friday, at which 200 suffragettes were assaulted by police, served to illustrate the need for militant women to be able to defend themselves against male violence.

World War[edit]

At the commencement of the First World War, the suffragette movement in Britain moved away from suffrage activities and focused their efforts on the war effort, and as a result, hunger strikes largely stopped.[40] In August 1914, the British Government released all prisoners who had been incarcerated for suffrage activities on an amnesty,[41] with Pankhurst ending all militant suffrage activities soon after.[42] The suffragettes’ focus on war work turned public opinion in favour of their eventual partial enfranchisement in 1918.[43]

Women eagerly volunteered to take on many traditional male roles – leading to a new view of what women were capable of. The war also caused a split in the British suffragette movement; the mainstream, represented by Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst’s WSPU calling a ceasefire in their campaign for the duration of the war, while more radical suffragettes, represented by Sylvia Pankhurst‘s Women’s Suffrage Federation continued the struggle.

The National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies, which had always employed “constitutional” methods, continued to lobby during the war years and compromises were worked out between the NUWSS and the coalition government.[44] On 6 February, the Representation of the People Act 1918 was passed, enfranchising women over the age of 30 who met minimum property qualifications as well as men over 21 – before this not all British men were enfranchised.[45] About 8.4 million women gained the vote.[45] In November 1918, the Parliament (Qualification of Women) Act 1918 was passed, allowing women to be elected into parliament.[45] The Representation of the People Act 1928 extended the voting franchise to all women over the age of 21, granting women the vote on the same terms that men had gained ten years earlier.[46]

Legacy[edit]

Nineteen-year-old Fay Hubbard selling suffragette papers in New York, 1910

Historians generally argue that the first stage of the militant suffragette movement under the Pankhursts in 1906 had a dramatic mobilizing effect on the suffrage movement. Women were thrilled and supportive of an actual revolt in the streets; the membership of the militant WSPU and the older NUWSS overlapped and were mutually supportive. However a system of publicity, Ensor argues, had to continue to escalate to maintain its high visibility in the media. The hunger strikes and force-feeding did that. However, the Pankhursts refused any advice and escalated their tactics. They turned to systematic disruption of Liberal Party meetings as well as physical violence in terms of damaging public buildings and arson. Searle says the methods of the suffragettes did succeed in damaging the Liberal party but failed to advance the cause of women’s suffrage. When the Pankhursts decided to stop the militancy at the start of the war, and enthusiastically support the war effort, the movement split and their leadership’s role ended. Suffrage did come four years later, but the feminist movement in Britain permanently abandoned the militant tactics that had made the suffragettes famous.[47][48]

Whitfield concludes that the militant campaign had some positive effects in terms of attracting enormous publicity, and forcing the moderates to better organize themselves, while also stimulating the organization of the antis. He concludes:

The overall effect of the suffragette militancy, however, was to set back the cause of women’s suffrage. For women to gain the right to vote it was necessary to demonstrate that they had public opinion on their side, to build and consolidate a parliamentary majority in favor of women’s suffrage and to persuade or pressure the government to introduce its own franchise reform. None of these objectives was achieved.[49]

Colours[edit]

Gold ear rings in suffragette colours

Pendant presented to Louise Eates in 1909

From 1908, the WSPU adopted the colour scheme of violet, white and green: violet symbolised dignity, white purity, and green hope. These three colours were used for banners, flags, rosettes and badges, They also would carry heart shaped vesta cases, and appeared in newspaper cartoons and postcards.[50]

Mappin & Webb, the London jewellers, issued a catalogue of suffragette jewellery for Christmas 1908.

In 1909 the WSPU presented specially commissioned pieces of jewellery to leading suffragettes Emmeline Pankhurst and Louise Eates. Some Arts and Crafts jewellery of the period incorporated the colours violet, white and green using enamel and semi-precious stones such as amethysts, pearls, and peridots. However jewellery that incorporated these stones was already quite common in women’s jewellery during the late 19th century, before 1903 and could not be connected with the suffragettes, before the WSPU adopted the colours. Also, the notion that the colours were green, white, and violet, to spell GWV as an acronym for “Give Women Votes” is a modern fallacy.[51]

The colours of green and heliotrope (purple) were commissioned into a new coat of arms for Edge Hill University in 2006, symbolising the University’s early commitment to the equality of women through its beginnings as a women-only college.[52]

Popular culture[edit]

Notable people[edit]

Great Britain[edit]

Ireland[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. Jump up ^ Ida Husted Harper. History of Woman Suffrage, volume 6 (National American Woman Suffrage Association, 1922) p. 752.
  2. Jump up ^ “Foundingdocs.gov.au”. Foundingdocs.gov.au. Archived from the original on 3 December 2010. Retrieved 8 January 2011. 
  3. Jump up ^ Crawford 1999.
  4. Jump up ^ van Wingerden 1999, p. 9.
  5. Jump up ^ Crawford 1999, p. 452.
  6. Jump up ^ Colmore, Gertrude. Suffragette Sally. Broadview Press, 2007, p. 14
  7. Jump up ^ Ben Walsh. GCSE Modern World History second edition (Hodder Murray, 2008) p. 60.
  8. Jump up ^ Grant 2011.
  9. Jump up ^ Howell, Georgina (2010). Gertrude Bell: Queen of the Desert, Shaper of Nations. p. 71. 
  10. Jump up ^ Harrison 2013, p. 176.
  11. Jump up ^ Pedersen 2004, p. 124.
  12. Jump up ^ Bolt 1993, p. 191.
  13. Jump up ^ “Did the Suffragettes Help?”. Claire. John D. (2002/2010), Greenfield History Site. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  14. Jump up ^ “The Suffragettes: Deeds not words” (PDF). National Archives. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  15. Jump up ^ Collection Highlights, Pank-A-Squith Board Game, People’s History Museum 
  16. Jump up ^ Time Stokes (21 December 2017). “The strangest things sent in the post”. BBC news. Retrieved 21 December 2017. 
  17. Jump up ^ “SUFFRAGETTES”. The Register. Adelaide: National Library of Australia. 16 April 1913. p. 7. Retrieved 26 October 2011. 
  18. Jump up ^ “Bomb explosion in Westminster Abbey; Coronation Chair damaged; Suffragette outrage”. The Daily Telegraph. 12 June 1914. p. 11. 
  19. Jump up ^ Thorpe, Vanessa (26 May 2013). “Truth behind the death of suffragette Emily Davison is finally revealed”. The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. 
  20. Jump up ^ “With ‘Sophia,’ A Forgotten Suffragette Is Back In The Headlines”. NPR.org. Retrieved 2 January 2016. 
  21. Jump up ^ Purvis 1995, p. 103.
  22. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Geddes 2008, p. 81.
  23. Jump up ^ Purvis, June (March–April 1995). “Deeds, not words: The daily lives of militant suffragettes in Edwardian Britain”. Women’s Studies International Forum. ScienceDirect. 18 (2): 97. doi:10.1016/0277-5395(95)80046-R. 
  24. Jump up ^ Purvis 1995, p. 104.
  25. Jump up ^ Williams 2001, p. 285.
  26. Jump up ^ Williams, Elizabeth (December 2008). “Gags, funnels and tubes: forced feeding of the insane and of suffragettes”. Endeavour. PubMed. 32 (4): 134. doi:10.1016/j.endeavour.2008.09.001. PMID 19019439. 
  27. Jump up ^ Purvis, “”Deeds, Not Words””, 97
  28. ^ Jump up to: a b c Miller 2009, p. 360.
  29. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Miller 2009, p. 361.
  30. ^ Jump up to: a b Geddes 2008, p. 82.
  31. Jump up ^ Geddes 2008, pp. 84–5.
  32. Jump up ^ Geddes 2008, p. 85.
  33. ^ Jump up to: a b Purvis, “Deeds, Not Words”, 97.
  34. Jump up ^ Williams, “Gags, funnels and tubes”, 138.
  35. Jump up ^ Geddes 2008, p. 83.
  36. Jump up ^ Geddes 2008, p. 88.
  37. Jump up ^ Geddes 2008, p. 89.
  38. Jump up ^ Wilson, Gretchen With All Her Might: The Life of Gertrude Harding, Militant Suffragette (Holmes & Meier Publishing, April 1998)
  39. Jump up ^ Ruz, Camila; Magazine, Justin Parkinson BBC News. “‘Suffrajitsu’: How the suffragettes fought back using martial arts”. BBC News. Retrieved 2015-12-09. 
  40. Jump up ^ Williams, “Gags, funnels and tubes”, 139.
  41. Jump up ^ Geddes 2008, p. 92.
  42. Jump up ^ Purvis 1995, p. 123.
  43. Jump up ^ J. Graham Jones, “Lloyd George and the Suffragettes”, National Library of Wales Journal (2003) 33#1 pp. 1–34
  44. Jump up ^ Ian Cawood, David McKinnon-Bell (2001). “The First World War”. p.71. Routledge 2001
  45. ^ Jump up to: a b c Fawcett, Millicent Garrett. The Women’s Victory – and After. p.170. Cambridge University Press
  46. Jump up ^ Peter N. Stearns (2008).In 1979 the first British women prime minister Margaret came> The Oxford encyclopedia of the modern world, Volume 7. p.160. Oxford University Press, 2008
  47. Jump up ^ , Robert Ensor, England: 1870–1914 (1936) pp 398–99
  48. Jump up ^ G.R. Searley, A New England? Peace and War 1886–1918 (2004) pp 456–70. quote p 468
  49. Jump up ^ Bob Whitfield, The Extension of the Franchise, 1832–1931 (2001) p 160
  50. Jump up ^ Crawford 1999, pp. 136–7.
  51. Jump up ^ Hughes, Ivor (March 2009). “Suffragette Jewelry, Or Is It?”. Antiques Journal. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  52. Jump up ^ “Colours, Crest & Mace”. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  53. Jump up ^ McPherson, Angela; McPherson, Susan (2011). Mosley’s Old Suffragette – A Biography of Norah Elam. ISBN 978-1-4466-9967-6. Archived from the original on 13 January 2012. 
Bibliography
Bolt, Christine (1993). The Women’s Movements in the United States and Britain from the 1790s to the 1920s. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 978-0-870-23866-6. 
Crawford, Elizabeth (1999). The Women’s Suffrage Movement: A Reference Guide, 1866–1928. London: UCL Press. ISBN 978-1-841-42031-8. 
Geddes, J. F. (2008). “Culpable Complicity: the medical profession and the forcible feeding of suffragettes, 1909–1914”. Women’s History Review. 17 (1): 79–94. doi:10.1080/09612020701627977.  closed access publication – behind paywall
Grant, Kevin (2011). “British suffragettes and the Russian method of hunger strike”. Comparative Studies in Society and History. 53 (1): 113–143. doi:10.1017/S0010417510000642.  closed access publication – behind paywall
Harrison, Brian (2013) [1978]. Separate Spheres: The Opposition to Women’s Suffrage in Britain. Abingdon: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-62336-0. 
Miller, Ian (2009). “Necessary Torture? Vivisection, Suffragette Force-Feeding, and Responses to Scientific Medicine in Britain c. 1870–1920”. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences. 64 (3): 333–372. doi:10.1093/jhmas/jrp008.  closed access publication – behind paywall
Pedersen, Susan (2004). Eleanor Rathbone and the Politics of Conscience. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10245-1. 
Purvis, June (1995). “The Prison Experiences of the Suffragettes in Edwardian Britain”. Women’s History Review. 4 (1): 103–133. doi:10.1080/09612029500200073.  open access publication – free to read
Williams, John (2001). “Hunger Strikes: A Prisoner’s Right or a ‘Wicked Folly’?”. Howard Journal. 40 (3): 285–296. doi:10.1111/1468-2311.00208.  closed access publication – behind paywall

Further reading[edit]

Atkinson, Diane (1992). The Purple, White and Green: Suffragettes in London, 1906–14. London: Museum of London. ISBN 978-0-904-81853-6. 
Hannam, June (2005). “International Dimensions of Women’s Suffrage: ‘at the crossroads of several interlocking identities'”. Women’s History Review. 14 (3–4): 543–560. doi:10.1080/09612020500200438.  closed access publication – behind paywall
Leneman, Leah (1995). A Guid Cause: The Women’s Suffrage Movement in Scotland (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Mercat Press. ISBN 978-1-873-64448-5. 
Liddington, Jill; Norris, Jill (2000). One Hand Tied Behind Us: The Rise of the Women’s Suffrage Movement (2nd ed.). London: Rivers Oram Press. ISBN 978-1-854-89110-5. 
Mayhall, Laura E. Nym (2000). “Reclaiming the Political: Women and the Social History of Suffrage in Great Britain, France, and the United States”. Journal of Women’s History. 12 (1): 172–181. doi:10.1353/jowh.2000.0023.  closed access publication – behind paywall
——— (2003). The Militant Suffrage Movement: Citizenship and Resistance in Britain, 1860–1930. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-195-15993-6. 
Purvis, June (2002). Emmeline Pankhurst: A Biography. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-23978-3. 
Purvis, June; Sandra, Stanley Holton, eds. (2000). Votes For Women. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-21458-2. 
Rosen, Andrew (2013) [1974]. Rise Up Women!: The Militant Campaign of the Women’s Social and Political Union, 1903–1914 (Reprint ed.). Abingdon: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-62384-1. 
Smith, Harold L. (2010). The British Women’s Suffrage Campaign, 1866–1928 (Revised 2nd ed.). Abingdon: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-408-22823-4. 
Wingerden, Sophia A. van (1999). The Women’s Suffrage Movement in Britain, 1866–1928. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-333-66911-2. 

Primary sources[edit]

  • Estelle Sylvia Pankhurst. The suffragette; the history of the women’s militant suffrage movement, 1905–1910 (New York Sturgis & Walton Company, 1911).

External links[edit]

<img src=”//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:CentralAutoLogin/start?type=1×1″ alt=”” title=”” width=”1″ height=”1″ style=”border: none; position: absolute;” />

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20 Nov 2017 The Door (drawing)

 

 

 

 

14 Nov 2017 Beyond Attachment to Names (mevlana jelaluddin rumi ) and drawings

14 Nov 2017 Jackie Wygant outdoor chalk drawing 1159 am Alvarado TX 1

14 Nov 2017 – It doesn’t matter what your name, your label, there is one cause for us all….unity.

14 Nov 2017 Jackie Wygant outdoor chalk drawing 1222 pm Alvarado TX 1

14 Nov 2017 – No more yellow ribbons…no more war.

14 Nov 2017 Jackie Wygant outdoor chalk drawing 1141 am Alvarado TX 1

14 Nov 2017 – We rise.

http://www.worldprayers.org/archive/prayers/celebrations/move_beyond_any_attachment.html

Move beyond any attachment to names…..

Every war  and every conflict between human beings has happened because
of some disagreement about names. It’s such an unnecessary foolishness, because just
beyond the arguing there’s a long  table of companionship, set and waiting for us to sit down.


What is praised is one, so the praise is one too,
many jugs being poured  into a huge basin. All religions, all this singing,
one song.  The differences are just illusion and vanity. Sunlight
looks slightly different  on this wall than it does on that wall and a lot different
on this other one, but  it is still one light. We have borrowed these clothes, these
time-and-space personalities,  from a light, and when we praise, we pour them back in.

mevlana jelaluddin rumi – 13th century

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13 Nov 2017 Jackie Wygant outdoor chalk drawing dream about plane crash Alvarado TX

13 Nov 2017 – this is me trying to get that airplane crash dream out of my head!

13 Nov 2017 Jackie Wygant outdoor chalk drawing entangled Alvarado TX

13 Nov 2017 – playing with squiggles! More inspiration from that Gael Song catalog with Celtic designs. The Celts got “squiggles” to perfection! I’m not even close but definitely inspired!

13 Nov 2017 Jackie Wygant outdoor chalk drawing woman in blue Alvarado TX

13 Nov 2017 – Lady in blue with squiggles. What’s funny is afterwards we found out we could access Netflix again and saw the first episode of Stranger Things 2 finally (Madmax). This woman here is like a drawing I did of Winona Ryder back in 1993.

Feb 1993 Jackie drawing of Winona Ryder looking like actress Louise Brooks

14 Nov 2017 – this is a drawing I did back in February 1993. It’s a fusion of Winona Ryder and actress Louise Brooks.

Good morning to you. It’s 7:46 am as I begin to write to you on this gray and overcast Tuesday…missing that sunshine! How are you? I hope you are doing well.

Yesterday we were going to go and see Thor: Ragnarok (https://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/thor_ragnarok_2017) at the AMC Theater in Burleson where we normally go to see movies. This particular Theater has started using the assigned seating system and we hate it! We bought tickets and admittingly sat in the wrong seats. It was a matinee and there were a lot of empty seats so we didn’t see a problem. A couple came in and apparently we were in their seats, so we moved. No problem. The opening credits started which included a war film starring Chris Hemsworth we were irritated to see a trailer for. We don’t like the reality war film genre at all…..makes sense when you don’t like war as much as we do. Anyways. Some more people came in and once again, we were in the wrong seat. We moved to what would be our seats but big surprise….people were sitting in them! Rather than ask those people to move like everyone had done to us, we just sat down in available seats nearby. Then Kyle, acting totally out of character for Kyle, was very angry and decided he just wanted to leave…get a refund. So we went to the poor man who had sold us the tickets. Kyle actually had beads of sweat on his forehead so I knew he was really mad and it was taking a lot to hold himself back from making a scene with the poor person who wasn’t responsible for a dysfunctional theater system. So I made sure to let the young man know we realized it wasn’t his fault the theater was being run in such a manner and explained why we wanted the refund. There was no way to make a complaint in the theater so Kyle did that when we got home. We probably won’t be going back to that particular theater as long as they continue with assigned seating. We could understand such a system for a premiere showing or a weekend….not a matinee. We really miss just being able to buy a ticket and find an available seat!

So I had a dream last night that was so vivid and wonderful I got out of bed at 1:54 am to write it down! I know the keys that unlocked this particular dream were my thinking and talking about the Distant Worlds concert Kyle and I saw together and reading poetry out loud, poorly in some instances as some of the words in the older poems are tricky, before bed.

I dreamt about reading stories written by children with disabilities like ADD/Autism at a benefit. I was reading as if I were the child with all the nuances of the way the child talked. The text I was reading was so vivid I actually remembered a couple of words from it and those were “hinged” and “hingeless.” These were used in the context of describing a person not a door. It wasn’t “me” reading in the dream. It was a young woman with a gentle soft face, brown curly hair and blue eyes. I remember someone saying thank you to her before I woke up.

The woman looked kind of like the character Darlene, actress Sara Gilbert, from the television sitcom Roseanne. As Kyle said to me after I told him the dream, “It probably was her, it’s who you cast for the role.” I guess the people who appear in our dreams could be like actors eh?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sara_Gilbert – in case you don’t know who Sara is

Anyhew….I loved that I remembered actual words from the dream and decided to see where they would lead me. Well I was lead to a bunch of pictures of people wearing glasses and the two articles I’m sharing that correlate quite well to what it means to be a “hingeless person.”

Being actively in the dream world is the epitome of being a hingeless person! I prefer that sort of definition to the one where a person can come completely unhinged and subsequently say and do very bad things! That correlates nicely to what happened with Kyle and I and our recent theater experience right?! Sometimes you need an extra set of hinges lol.

Time to close and get on with the day. I hope there is something for you here in all of this!

http://thechristianpulse.com/2015/04/18/a-door-without-hinges/this was the first article I found when looking for anything about what it might mean to be a hingeless person. I don’t agree with everything Marty writes here, but there are parts that really resonated with me and I’ve “bolded” those aspects. For those who are not Christians, this piece comes from that direction – just a heads up in case you walk a different path.

A Door Without Hinges

April 18, 2015 by admin Filed under Family Focus

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By Marty Norman

A door is an interesting thing. Everyone has them, everyone uses them. A working definition, for purposes of this article is: an opening that allows a body to move between two places quickly.

Recently my granddaughter Lily stayed at our house for a week. She is into Webkinz, so our first activity was to go to Target and buy Hopkins the Elephant, and Hippie the Hippopotamus. Next we got online to “adopt” these animals and give them a name.

The Webkinz site is a clever one. Once signed in, each pet owner has his/her own house. Each new pet is given a room of their own in the house. Then the owner carefully picks out furniture, beds, room colors, and favorite objects customized for them to enjoy. Each “adoptee” can travel from room to room to visit the other “adoptees”. However, to get from one room to the next they must stand in a doorway. With the click of a mouse they then move effortlessly from room to room.

In this fantasy world, doors are the key. Only by going through the door can one advance forward.

In the spiritual world, doors are also the key. But the spiritual world is not fantasy. Jesus tells us in Revelation 3:20, “I stand at the door and knock. If anyone hears my voice and opens the door, I will come in and eat with him, and he with me.” (NIV)

Another door – but one of greater importance – for this door leads to salvation, eternity, and to a personal relationship with the Savior. But this door is also an opening that allows our flesh and spirit to move quickly between two worlds, the spiritual and the physical.

I once read a meditation by my friend Cathy that described a door as having three hinges – a great description for physical and spiritual doors. It takes three hinges to hold a physical door in place. In the same way, in the spiritual realm, the three hinges are the Trinity, the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, staples that hold a person in place, keep us on the mark, and help us advance to the next room.

But what happens to the door that has no hinges, the person who has no spiritual foundation?

Here are some characteristics of a hinge-less door.

First of all, a hinge-less door cannot be opened – no way, no how, without the ability to open and close, the door falls to the ground. There is no anchor, no connection to a foundation. A hinge-less person also has no anchor. With the slightest wind they fall for there is nothing holding them up.

A hinge-less door is also rocky. You never know when it will collapse. And when it falls, it damages that which it falls upon. The same with the anchorless person. Unaware of consequences they fall every which way, often damaging those with whom they come in contact.

A hinge-less door is unusable. It serves no purpose. The same with the anchorless person. How can they be used if they are not in step with God’s will and purpose? God uses those who stay close and in contact with him to love, heal, and bless his people.

A hinge-less door is out of control. There is no stability that orders its way. Without a Father who loves, a Savior who redeems, and a Holy Spirit that leads and guides, the anchorless person is without form or stability.

So hinges are a necessary part of the moving forward process. As believers of the “The Way”, it is up to us to carry extra hinges wherever we go, for we never know when we might be needed to stabilize a wobbly door. By introducing the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit to others, by helping to anchor hinge-less doors to the God of heaven, we will be helping the hinge-less attach to the firm foundation of life.

A Webkinz I am not, but anyone can be a carpenter that works with the Savior. Now that is a door I can stay connected to – and with just a click of the mouse! How convenient is that?

Marty Norman is a wife, mother, and grandmother of five, who lives in Fort Worth, Texas. She is the author of “Generation G – Advice for Savvy Grandmothers Who Will Never Go Gray.” You can learn more about her at: www.martynorman.com, http://martynorman.blogspot.com, http://savvygrandmothers.blogspot.com.

 

https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-second-noble-truth/201301/your-dream-worldthis piece stuck out at me because I am more actively paying attention to my dreams again. I have realized for myself and mentioned it many times in my blogs that our personal perception of the world is a key factor to the life we live. A key element to the life we share with other human beings and life forms on this planet. Just because you perceive a person, place, thing or situation a certain way doesn’t make you “right.” It is only your perception, which may be completely different from another. It doesn’t make you “wrong” either…just “different.” We need different to help us navigate this life. I think if we rely only on our own perception of everything, we could be living in a lot of untruths of what reality truly is.

William Berry, LMHC., CAP. The Second Noble Truth

Your Dream World

Don’t go through life unaware you are projecting the inner world onto the outer.

Posted Jan 06, 2013

Photo by Alexi Berry

Source:

This article isn’t about dream interpretation, though the analogy is apt. The post is about how projection, which is a staple in dreaming, occurs in waking life and affects what you see. It is about no longer walking through life in a dream like state and taking the time to delve inside of yourself, to interpret your life.

In Gestalt dream analysis, everything in the dream is you. Other theories, though not outright stating everything in the dream is subjective, recognize that projection is apparent. After all it is your mind creating the images, not an actual person invading your dream. Your unconscious projects an image. The real meaning of the image lies within you, not outside in another.

Dream interpretation is very interesting and can provide clues to the unconscious. The purpose of this post is to discuss how the waking hours can do the same. There are aspects of reality we all agree upon: the weather; who won which bowl game; there is little about these aspects of reality anyone will argue. There is a great deal of room in daily interactions and activities, however, for one to have their own truth, their own perception of reality. In fact, it could be contended that the vast majority of occurrences in a day have a large element of projection.

Projection is when an individual attributes something within him or herself onto another. Basically, you see what you are. This is not new; there are numerous quotes that impart this meaning: Anaïs Nin stated, “We don’t see things as they are, we see them as we are.” Henry David Thoreau proclaimed, “It’s not what you look at that matters, it’s what you see.” Carl Jung said, “Your vision will become clear only when you can look into your own heart. Who looks outside, dreams; who looks inside, awakes.” These quotes, and likely many others, point to the theory that humans project their unconscious onto others. Simply, what one finds in the world is a reflection of one’s unconscious.

The idea that one is projecting much of what he or she perceives maybe difficult to accept. People rely on their thinking beyond reproach. This is understandable; one has more access to his or her thoughts than any other material. One’s thinking has likely served him well. The thought of not relying on thinking could be terrifying. However, the alternative is to walk through a dream world never interpreted.

In previous posts I have touched on the theme of subjective reality. One of my more popular posts is, “The Truth Will Not Set You Free.” The suggestion is similar here: question thinking. Evaluate it. Step outside of thought, look at it objectively and with an inquisitive mind, and evaluate it. Could all of these learned and insightful people, some of whom developed theories around projection, others who use the theories to assist others to increase happiness, have been wrong? Isn’t it possible or perhaps likely that what one sees is affected by their unconscious, by their experience, by their history? As such, how is projection affecting your vision?

To approach this differently, it is not being suggested that one simply cease having confidence in every thought and question everything. Nothing would get done. Automatic thinking serves the human race well. It helps discern between dangerous and benign situations. It allows for much more productivity. It eases living immensely. To be without it would be to become infantile.

Always functioning and trusting thinking, nevertheless, has its costs. Often one is not completely present in interactions, as the mind, the ego, is determining the next move. This might be what to say or considering what is next on the agenda. By not being completely present, and by allowing automatic thinking to operate unquestioned, one does not perceive reality accurately. Prior experience taints the present. One may not be able to see past their impression. Opportunities may be missed. Negativity focused on rather than positivity. Potential acquaintances judged and discarded without really knowing who they are. Others allowed into one’s life that one might have been better off without. All because an overused, albeit handy, tool has gone unchecked.

It is not the intention of this post to persuade one to give up on initial impressions or hunches. Often they serve an incredible purpose. In Malcolm Gladwell’s book “Blink”, he does an excellent job of describing how intuition and first impressions can be incredibly positive; while at other times they alter perception in a negative way leading to horrible outcomes. The purpose of this post is simply to encourage the questioning of thought and judgment, especially when it is leading to negative feeling and action. A good beginning would be questioning what we don’t like in another. Carl Jung said, “Everything that irritates us about others can lead us to an understanding of ourselves.” Another time to begin self-evaluation is when you misunderstand someone. It is likely you were projecting your own unconscious into the misunderstanding.

Evaluating oneself can be a daunting task. Days are filled with activity, deadlines, and tasks. Automatic thinking permits a smoother, and more efficient life. Evaluating if you are projecting the unconscious takes time and an open mind. It can be an arduous task to interpret the representations you put on another, or on a situation. Questioning one’s thinking, looking within, peering into the possible ugliness that lies in the unconscious is challenging to say the least. But self-understanding, a potentially less outwardly conflictual existence, and being in the present moment more often are worth it.

Copyright William Berry, 2013

References:

Gladwell, Malcolm; 2005; Blink.

 

29 Oct 2017 Dreaming while your awake – imagining

Hello to you.  It’s Sunday afternoon now and it’s been a lovely day here.  Lots of drawing today.  I don’t know how to describe what it is that is going on with me and this chalk drawing now.  The phrase, “dreaming while your awake” comes to mind or just good old fashioned day dreaming.  Just putting down on the pavement whatever comes to my mind.  Sometimes it makes sense and sometimes it’s just thoughts and images passing through.  I like to share them because may be something within them will spark your imagination too?!  I hope so.  It’s so important to make time and space for imagination….imagining.  When I go out with my chalks, that is what I’m doing.  What do you do as an outlet for all those miscellaneous thoughts?

22 Aug 2017 Eclipse and Angel of the morning chalk drawings

Hello to you.  It’s 12:53 pm on this Tuesday afternoon.  How are you doing?  I have been trying to write in an alternate “universe” lol, blog, I Pay Attention (https://ipayattentionblog.wordpress.com) but am losing steam on it.  It’s frustrating to “start over” and irritating that I ran out of picture space but I’ve decided to make it a challenge!  So if you are new to visiting here and you look at some of my older blogs, which I’m going to start culling and going through today, you may notice lots of empty spaces where pictures used to be.  I’m going to refrain from using outside picture sources I think and see how that goes!  UGH!  May be at some point I’ll upgrade to the Premium plan but just can’t swing it right now.

21 Aug 2017 – chalk drawing I did yesterday after the beautiful experience of the eclipse yesterday.

I don’t know if you can make out the angel I drew in chalk this morning.  When I draw on my porch in the morning, sometimes the light isn’t quite right for taking pictures of what I’ve drawn.  I’ll try for a better picture later when the shadows are less harsh.

22 Aug 2017 – “Angel of the morning” chalk drawing I did today.

What came to me about her was “rising up” after adversity.  From the ashes of the past we rise, we ascend to greater heights.  Yesterday when I was outside laying on our bandstand during the eclipse, I had a vision of a huge angel descending from the sun.  Guess that’s where this drawing is coming from.  It was so beautiful to have one day where most of the world set aside it’s grievances and just focused on the eclipse….something positive.  May be that was the energy I felt in the air….it was lovely.

Love, hugs and light to you wherever and whenever this message finds you!

Beautiful prayer/intention from the World Prayers site: http://www.worldprayers.org/prayerwheel/index.html

Dear God,

i don’t know why i am here,
i don’t know why all of this has happened to me.

in truth, i don’t know anything at all,
and i don’t know the why of anything at all.

but there is nothing i need or desire or want…
as each new moment brings enough of whatever is necessary.

my prayer to you, is a simple prayer of heartfelt thanks:

i thank you, God…

…for allowing me to be whatever i am
…for the world and for all of the experiences of being here
…for the blessings of everything that appears in my life
…for all the beauty, the majesty, the mystery, the wonder you have created
…for the peace, the wisdom, the power, the glory that i have found in you
…for all the lights of the world you have given: my family, friends, acquaintances, relationships
…for using me as your instrument in whatever manner you choose
…for showing me the silence, the stillness, and the way to live without fear
…for the guidance of your will for my life

and most of all, God,

i thank you for Love.

your empty vessel,
your humble servant forever,

i am.

i’m free – tom hixson – 21 september 2006

 

 

8 Aug 2015 – My hot glue gun Merkaba aka Tetrahedron and idea how to get mainstream media worth watching again

Yesterday, after spending the previous day for HOURS trying to figure out how to make a Merkaba for my friend Sarah so she’ll have it for an upcoming class she’s doing, I decided to seek the almighty You Tube lol and found this simple video by Brian Walter.  He was making his larger as light fixtures for Burning Man in 2012 but how he did it is what I needed to see.  Following his instructions I was able to make the Merkaba much more easily and this morning I think we are going to seek an inexpensive soldering iron so I can actually bind this without the hot glue (although I kind of like the “glow” going on with it and am going to work with that).  I have wanted to embark on the “soldering” but wasn’t ready but I think once I get it down…omg it’s going to be AWESOME!  (musical sound with the AWESOME! lol).

https://youtu.be/NYijoVw2hYo?list=PL_rYpWbrL6o5By6ycJJOHhWh5irtZQaVy – How to create the Star tetrahedron/Merkaba (Sacred Spaces light fixtures)

Brian Walter
https://youtu.be/EkpV_K7K7Nw?list=PL_rYpWbrL6o5By6ycJJOHhWh5irtZQaVy  – Star Tetrahedron and the Light Body TomjLedder

This video shows a “life-size” Merkaba like Sarah, Kyle and I were talking about being cool for Kyle to weld together someday (need a portable welder first!).  Tom also does a good job briefly explaining the spiritual significance of this sacred geometric symbol.

From a earlier post I talked about decided to stop worrying about writing how to do things down but after my experiences yesterday, may be it’s important to record what I’m doing because it will still be original and my creation BUT because whomever attempts what I’ve done will make it their own.  Hand-made things cannot be replicated “exactly.”  I’m grateful Brian DID record how he made his welded Merkaba otherwise I’d still be sitting at our kitchen table with steam coming out my ears LOL!

Kyle and I talked about the topic of creativity on our walk with Link and Spot this morning.  Every form of media these days seems to be completely devoid of originality and I think this is partly due to a perversion of the phrase “if it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.”  The media moguls are rebooting all sorts of things because it got viewers and made them money in the past.  Well the people who did the originals and are showing up in reboots are not the same people they were and neither are the viewers who watched it.  We aren’t the same people every 7 days much less 15 – 20 years down the road.  Like all institutions, businesses or just “things” in general, if you just keep using the same formula over and over it gets boring and people lose interest.  This is why reality television shows like America’s Got Talent, RuPaul’s Drag Race, Survivor, Big Brother, Wipe Out, Battle Bots, America Ninja Warrior and those like them are so popular.  Even with some sort of script there is the wild card element of people without a script doing remarkable and unpredictable things.  In the video game industry I think this is why Indie games are becoming so popular – by gamers, FOR gamers mentality.

I think a way to break through this rut in the movie and television realm in particular is to do something like this.  Very much like the reality shows.  You have a premise and a cast – the rest is ad lib and may be some brain-storming with the customers who actually watch and listen to these things.  You would have writers, producers, screen writers involved but in the periphery.  The end product would not from start to finish be controlled by them.  They would become the “tweekers.”  Can you imagine if you got people like from the cast of Parks and Recreation with Maggie Smith or contestants from RuPaul’s Drag Race and just let them ad lib what would happen?!  OMG!  LOL!  There are so many talented actors and actresses getting pigeon holed into rebooted shite I just don’t want to see!  I’m tired of the SAME OLD STORIES!  Go Japanese anime style for goodness sake – if you’ve ever seen the AWESOME anime Berzerk you know what I’m talking about.

Anyew – something weird just happened where my computer just went “power out!” so thinking it’s time for me to get off of her!  SPOOKY!

I’m always learning, always evolving — impermanence and no attachment to outcomes is important in the process of creation.  You must love what you create, put that energy into what you create, if any one else will love it too.  When I make something and am not happy with how it turns out — it gets destroyed and I start again.  This thought applies across the board of life I think!

Link to good explanation of what the Merkaba is:  http://www.absoluteempowerment.com/the-merkaba.php – What is the Merkaba

These two together seemed appropriate! The Tree of Life was an anniversary gift from Kyle when he was in welding school! The Tree is our theme for anniversaries and I love this.

These two together seemed appropriate! The Tree of Life was an anniversary gift from Kyle when he was in welding school! The Tree is our theme for anniversaries and I love this.