Hello to you. It’s 11:03 am on this Tuesday morning as I start to write to you. I’m happy to report Link is doing better after his battle with we aren’t sure what. He had blood work done for organ function, fecal matter testing and pancreatic tests which all came up negative for any nasties. There is a possibility that he got himself stressed out when we were out of the house more frequently than normal (box car derby)….hard to say. What I wouldn’t give for the ability to do a mind-meld with my dogs to figure out what the heck is going on in their heads sometimes!
Sunday night I was up most of the night with him but we did manage to get a few winks on the couch in the living room. I ended up having another one of those vivid dreams where it’s hard to tell if you are sleeping or in a dream. I was looking out our front windows and it was dark. I saw flashing blue lights like the ones on top of police cars. There were lights on in the house. After I saw the flashing lights, all the sudden all the lights in our house started going out, the last one was in the bedroom and I yelled, “They EMP’d us!” and woke up. Weird thing to dream on another anniversary of one of the worst days in world history….9/11.
So anyways….as I write this morning, Link is feeling better. Poor Spot was a basket case with Link being so sick. When we brought him to the vet and came home without him, she just moped around, got very clingy…smelling my clothes where he had been. Then when we brought him home from the vet yesterday afternoon, she was so happy! He was happy to see her too and even gave her a kiss lol!
They prescribed the antibiotic Metronidazole, which is yet another drug intended for humans being passed off to our dogs and cats. When I read about it, I was not happy. Ironically it’s a drug to help with diarrhea with a possible side effect of causing diarrhea! Insanity! The other, more concerning side effect can be neurological problems! For me, as the nurse-maid having to administer the drugs, is getting him to actually take them without a heavy “disguise” of burying the pill in meat or some other food product just so he’ll eat the pill. Why the hell hasn’t the animal pharmaceutical industry formulated a drug like this that is specifically for dog and cat biology, will appeal to said dog or cat and not have such horrendous side effects?! Probably for the same reason they haven’t done it for humans….sigh.
For human use info:
http://www.petsmart.com/dog/pharmacy/rx-medication/metronidazole-tablet-generic-to-flagyl-5274505.html – We use Banfield Pet Hospital which is located inside of Petsmart in Burleson TX. I’m glad I decided to find and share this, as the vet didn’t tell us that crushing the tablets could cause drooling!
What is Metronidazole?This is an oral medication that helps to kill susceptible anaerobic bacteria and protozoa including Giardia. It also acts as an anti-inflammatory in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract so it can be helpful in the treatment of diarrhea as a result of multiple causes.
What are the benefits of Metronidazole?
- Effective against many cases of diarrhea.
- Helps with intestinal and periodontal infections plus other susceptible infections.
- Treats Giardia.
Formulated for:primarily cats and dogs but may be useful in other species.
How is this medication given?Use exactly as directed. Always follow the instructions your veterinarian gives you for your individual pet. If you have questions about how to use Metronidazole correctly, contact your veterinarian.
How does this medication work? Susceptible anaerobic bacteria and certain protozoa are killed most likely as a result of inhibition of DNA synthesis within the affected organism. Metronidazole also works to reduce inflammation in the GI tract so it can be help in the treatment of diarrhea.
What results can I expect? Your pets infection or condition should improve when you use Metronidazole as prescribed. Some conditions respond with a short course of treatment. Other more chronic conditions may require several weeks or more before they are resolved. If your pet seems to be worsening or is not improving after all required medication has been given, notify your veterinarian.
What form(s) does Metronidazole come in? Metronidazole is commercially available as a tablet.
Generic Name:Metronidazole (Common Drug Name)
Common Brand Name:Flagyl
Dose and Administration:Give orally according to your veterinarians exact directions. Give a dose as soon as you remember if you miss a dose but skip the dose if it is time for the next one. Never share this medication with other pets in the household. Talk to your veterinarian if you have questions regarding the proper use of Metronidazole.
Uses: Metronidazole works to treat susceptible bacterial and protozoal infections including Giardia. It can also help to reduce inflammation in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
Possible Side Effects: Nausea, loss of appetite, and vomiting are the most commonly reported side effects. Other problems such as diarrhea, lethargy, weakness, blood in the urine, head tilt, stumbling, and liver disease are also possible but less likely.
A true allergic reaction may occur if your pet is allergic to Metronidazole. Other side effects are may occur.
Your pet may salivate or drool if tablets are crushed or chewed.
If your pet appears sick in any way while taking Metronidazole, contact your veterinarian immediately.
Drug and Food Interactions: Discuss all other medications or supplements your pet is taking with your veterinarian before giving Metronidazole. Interactions are possible with anticoagulants, cimetidine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and some sedatives/tranquilizers. Other drug interactions may occur.
Precautions:Pets who are allergic to Metronidazole or its derivatives should not take this medication. Do not give this medication to pregnant and lactating females. Debilitated animals or those with liver disease should be given this medication with extreme caution only as prescribed by a veterinarian.
Storage:Store at room temperature in a safe place.
A prescription from your veterinarian is required to purchase Metronidazole.
Excerpt from Fruit Crop Ecology and Management, Chapter 2: Managing the Community of Pests and Beneficials by Larry Gut, Annemiek Schilder, Rufus Isaacs and Patricia McManus
The role of population genetics
An individual organism’s genes determine its physical and behavioral traits. When individuals reproduce, they pass along unique combinations of genes to their offspring. Different environments favor individuals with different physical and behavioral traits. Individuals with genes that improve their survival will be more likely to pass along these genes compared to the rest of the population. The mix of genes in a population is called the gene pool. The composition of the gene pool continually changes over time through a process called natural selection.
With the help of plant breeders, fruit growers have taken advantage of the gene pool’s natural variability in a process known as artificial selection. The first step in this process is to identify desirable traits, such as flavor, color, tolerance, or resistance to a pest. Once desirable traits are identified, these can be incorporated into new crop varieties through conventional breeding or genetic engineering. For example, apples have been bred to create a few varieties that are resistant to apple scab. Even without specific breeding efforts, fruit crop varieties display a natural range of resistance to various pests and diseases. When monocultures of single varieties are planted, efficiency of production is traded for diversity of resistance to pests.
Effects of pesticide selection
Repeated use of the same class of pesticides to control a pest can cause undesirable changes in the gene pool of a pest leading to another form of artificial selection, pesticide resistance. When a pesticide is first used, a small proportion of the pest population may survive exposure to the material due to their distinct genetic makeup. These individuals pass along the genes for resistance to the next generation. Subsequent uses of the pesticide increase the proportion of less-susceptible individuals in the population. Through this process of selection, the population gradually develops resistance to the pesticide. Worldwide, more than 500 species of insects, mites, and spiders have developed some level of pesticide resistance. The twospotted spider mite is a pest of most fruit crops and is notorious for rapidly developing resistance to miticides.
Some plant pathogens have also become resistant to pesticides. Among fruit producers in North America, apple growers perhaps have faced the most significant problems with pesticide resistance. Examples include streptomycin resistance in the fire blight bacterium and benomyl resistance in the apple scab pathogen. Although the precise genetic and ecological factors differ among pests that have become resistant, in all cases resistance is driven by one process—selection.
Selection for resistance can occur if a small proportion of the insect population is able to survive treatment with insecticide. These rare resistant individuals can reproduce and pass on their resistance to the offspring. If an insecticide with the same mode of action is repeatedly used against this population, an even greater proportion will survive. Ultimately, the once-effective product no longer controls the resistant population.
Single-step pesticide resistance arises suddenly in the field. A single gene or physiological function changes so that an individual becomes highly resistant to the pesticide. With just one or two sprays of the pesticide, the population shifts from mostly sensitive to mostly resistant individuals. This is the process by which populations of streptomycin-resistant fire blight bacteria and benomyl-resistant apple scab bacteria rapidly developed in commercial orchards.
Multi-step pesticide resistance arises slowly in the field over many years. Rather than having distinct groups of sensitive and resistant individuals, the population consists of individuals with a range of sensitivities to the pesticide. With each pesticide application, those individuals at the more resistant end of the spectrum survive and reproduce. Over the years, the proportion of the population that can survive a pesticide spray increases, until that pesticide eventually becomes ineffective. This process is underway in apple orchards where the sterol inhibitor (SI) fungicides have been used extensively to control scab. The shift toward resistance leads to a gradual erosion of control.
Growers can help delay the development of resistance by applying pesticides only when they are needed, by rotating between different chemical classes, and by using rates of pesticides within the labeled range. Integrating non-chemical approaches such as pheromone mating disruption and cultural controls can also help delay resistance.