25 July 2015 – Eye of God Nebula in my Living Room

This morning is a little foggy for me – coming off my Benadryl hangover.  Yesterday, after a few days of having red itchy spots showing up on various parts of my body, some very intimate, I decided I’d better figure out what the hell was going on….it’s chiggers.  I should have known after my neighbor said she got them walking from our neighborhood to Stonegate but like most people, “it won’t happen to me.”  It happened to me.   I try to avoid taking any more medication than I have to but omg!  I’ve always had a really bad reaction to mosquito bites and this is like that on steroids.  If you don’t know what chiggers are, here’s some info:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trombiculidae (aka chiggers).

ANYHEW – yesterday afternoon while Kyle and I were watching our latest favorite show Skin Wars (and of course one of our favorite t.v. personalities Ru Paul is a judge: http://www.gsntv.com/show/skin-wars/)  and a phenomena that has happened since we bought the house took on a new meaning.

When I looked at this:

closer up - isn't it amazing there is an actual area in the center that looks like a pupil?!

closer up – isn’t it amazing there is an actual area in the center that looks like a pupil?!

I realized much it looked like this:

IDL TIFF file

Nasa Hubble Telescope image of the Eye of God Nebula

So we decided to play a little and Kyle did this:

Kyle "I hearting" our personal nebula

Kyle “I hearting” our personal nebula

Too cool right?!  I drew a pictures on the 18th and 19th of August 2012 about this.  One is my portrayal of how it looks when the light comes through the peephole on our front door and the other is of my Mary Statue watching over me in our bedroom — Eye of God Nebula coming through the clouds.

 

18 Aug 2012 Drawing by Jackie Wygant

I have a Mother Mary statue that my Dad had in his workshop for years and I asked if I could have it and she’s been with me ever since. Her hands are broken and her head has come off before but she’s still intact…just like me….a survivor

19 Aug 2012 Jackie Wygant Drawing

What it looks like when the light comes through the peephole in our front door – mesmerizing!

Too cool not to share!

My spirit sister Sarah and I are busy collaborating on her monthly newsletter and I was able to get on her Mail Chimp account yesterday and figure out how to put it together.  We want to have it out by next Friday.  We are such a great team!  At first I wasn’t sure I’d be able to work with the program but I did and I’m proud of myself for not just throwing my hands up and giving up on it.  http://www.blessedoaks.com/ – Sarah’s website

All new things come with unique challenges but they are often like things we done before and with perseverance it’s so worth it in the end!

23 July 2015 Hugging oneself drawing for Sarah first attempt Jackie Wygant Alvarado TX

This is for our newsletter and aside from the feet being “weird” I like it – it’s meant to convey Empowerment – hugging yourself!

Have a great weekend!

 

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3 July 2015 – Do you know what is in your cities drinking water?

FINALLY finished!  Yesterday we received our annual water quality report from the city and today I decided to actually find out what all the chemicals registering actually were.  At a glance, the average person doesn’t have a clue what any of the chemicals are or do they have the time to do what I did and spend hours figuring it out!

There were 70 chemicals with trace elements that showed up on the report and most of them have cancer as a health effect concern with exposure to many of these chemicals.

We don’t drink water from the tap here.  We use a water filter for making coffee but otherwise drink bottled water which we don’t like to do because of it not being ec0-friendly AT ALL.   Our water doesn’t taste good and frankly we just don’t trust it.  So we pay quite a bit for city water, which we ought to be able to drink AND water filters AND bottled water.  Water is definitely the new oil of our age.

Here is the water bill and quality report:

Here in the following pages is my gift to you who have always wondered and or wanted to know what was in your cities drinking water and haven’t had the time or gumption to find out.  I’d recommend copying and pasting this into a word document so you can use a viewing device to read it more easily AND have it as a source reference for future use:

Definitions of chemicals and minerals on this water report

*Sources referenced underneath each chemical

Arsenic :

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=1005

Status: Regulated – EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Arsenic contaminates drinking water due to mining runoff, erosion of natural deposits, emissions from glass and electronics processing and the use of arsenical compounds as wood preservatives and pesticides.

Health Concerns for Arsenic (total):

  • Cancer
  • Developmental/reproductive toxicity
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Neurotoxicity
  • Occupational hazards
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation
  • Endocrine disruption
  • Biochemical or cellular level changes
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Multiple, additive exposure sources

 

Barium :

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=1010

Status: Regulated – EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Barium is a mineral that enters drinking water through drilling and mining waste runoff, discharges from chemical industries and erosion of natural deposits.

Health Concerns for Barium (total):

  • Occupational hazards
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Biochemical or cellular level changes
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Cancer

 

Chromium :

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=1020

Status: Regulated – EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Chromium is a metal that pollutes drinking water due to discharge from steel and pulp mills and erosion of natural deposits.

Health Concerns for Chromium (total):

  • Allergies/immunotoxicity
  • Cancer
  • Occupational hazards
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation

Fluoride:

http://www.freedrinkingwater.com/water-contamination/fluoride-contaminants-removal-water.htm

Major uses

Inorganic fluorine compounds are used in aluminium production, as a flux in the steel and glass fibre industries, and in the production of phosphate fertilizers (which contain an average of 3.8% fluorine), bricks, tiles, and ceramics. Fluosilicic acid is used in municipal water fluoridation schemes (1).

“Several epidemiological studies are available on the possible association between fluoride in drinking-water and cancer rates among the population. IARC evaluated these studies in 1982 and 1987 and considered that they provided inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity in humans (1,14). The results of several epidemiological studies on the possible adverse effects of fluoride in drinking-water on pregnancy outcome are inconclusive (3,6,11).”

 

Nitrate (measured as Nitrogen):

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=1040

Status: Regulated – EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Nitrate enters drinking water sources from fertilizer runoff, leaching septic tanks, and erosion of natural deposits; it is also emitted by chemical, petrochemical and metal-finishing industries. [read more]

Health Concerns for Nitrate:

  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Selenium:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=1045

Status: Regulated – EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Selenium is a naturally occurring element that contaminates water due to mining or petrolum refining, fly-ash from coal-burning power plants, and irrigation of arid farmland soils high in selenium. [read more]

Health Concerns for Selenium (total):

  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation
  • Developmental/reproductive toxicity
  • Occupational hazards
  • Cancer
  • Neurotoxicity
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Thallium:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=1085

Status: Regulated – EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Thallium is a highly toxic metal that contaminates the environment due to leaching from ore-processing sites, discharge from electronics, glass, and drug factories and historical use as rodenticide [read more]

Health Concerns for Thallium (total):

  • Allergies/immunotoxicity
  • Neurotoxicity
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation
  • Developmental/reproductive toxicity
  • Occupational hazards
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Cancer
  • Biochemical or cellular level changes
  • Ecotoxicology

Combined Radium :

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=4010

Status: Regulated – EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Radium is a radioactive element usually found around uranium deposits. [read more]

Health Concerns for Combined Radium (-226 & -228):

  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive

http://www.freedrinkingwater.com/water_health/health2/radon-in-drinking-water-related2-lung&stomach-cancers.htm

How many yearly deaths from lung and stomach cancers are related to radon in household drinking water in the United States?

Exactly what is radon and how many deaths are attributed to it via your drinking water? Radon is a colorless and odorless, naturally occurring radioactive gas that is formed by radioactive decay of the element radium. This gas can dissolve in ground water and volatilize when water is released from a faucet or shower head. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommends that public water suppliers remove radon from their water if levels exceed 300 picocuries per liter.

Just how does radon enter a water system? Radon gas is very soluble in water and the amount of radon dissolved in ground water ranges from 100 to 3 million pCi/L. Radon is so common that most ground water has some level of radon. On average, radon in water is believed to contribute about five percent of the total indoor air concentrations found in homes served by wells. Another way for radon to get into water is pollution from lime and phosphate fertilizers that contain radium. Radium may leach through sandy soils or enter ground water through sinkholes on agricultural land.

Just what are the health concerns for radon? The two principal concerns for radon are stomach cancer from ingesting radon and lung cancer from inhalation of radon byproducts. The health risk of radon inhalation is believed to be many times greater than the risk resulting from direct ingestion of radon contained in water. It has been estimated that there is an increased lifetime stomach cancer risk of between 0.25 to 1.0 percent per 100,000 pCi/L in a water supply, although there is no direct evidence of this. Radon in water is emitted to the air, especially where water is agitated or sprayed (shower, washing machine). The EPA has not set a Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for radon in drinking water at this time but recommends that any level of radon above 300 pCi/L should be a concern.

While there are no exact figures on this but most organizations and agencies who have studied radon exposure estimate that radon levels in household water contributes a very small fraction of the total lung and stomach cancers in the U.S. By 2000 estimates, about 160,000 people died per year from lung cancer. Most of these deaths are caused by smoking. About 12 percent of these deaths are believed to be caused by a combination of smoke inhalation and radon. The USEPA estimates that less than one percent of this 12 percent or about 150 out of the total 160,000 yearly deaths actually results from inhaling radon that is emitted from household water. The USEPA also estimates that ingesting radon in drinking water is responsible for only about 18 of the 14,000 stomach cancers per year.

 

Explanation of what the Analytical Result compounds detected are and health effects: 70 chemicals with trace elements in water samples

 

 Vinyl Chloride:  

http://www.freedrinkingwater.com/water-contamination/vinyl-chloride-contaminants-removal-water.htm

What is Vinyl Chloride and how is it used?

Vinyl chloride is a colorless organic gas with a sweet odor. It is used in the manufacture of numerous products in building and construction, automotive industry, electrical wire insulation and cables, piping, industrial and household equipment, medical supplies, and is depended upon heavily by the rubber, paper, and glass industries.

The MCL has been set at 2 parts per billion (ppb) because EPA believes, given present technology and resources, this is the lowest level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove this contaminant should it occur in drinking water.

What are the Health Effects?

Short-term: EPA has found vinyl chloride to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: damage to the nervous system.

Long-term: Vinyl chloride has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL: damage to the liver and nervous system; cancer.

1,1-Dichloroethene:

http://www.freedrinkingwater.com/water-contamination/11-dichloroethylene-contaminants-removal-water.htm

What is 1,1-DCE and how is it used?

1,1-Dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE) is an organic liquid with a mild, sweet, chloroform-like odor. Virtually all of it is used in making adhesives, synthetic fibers, refrigerants, food packaging and coating resins such as the saran types.

What are the Health Effects?

Short-term: EPA has found 1,1-DCE to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: liver damage.

Long-term: 1,1-DCE has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL: liver and kidney damage, as well as toxicity to the developing fetus; cancer.

Methylene chloride:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2964

Status: Regulated – EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Dichloromethane is a widely-used paint remover, solvent and metal degreasing agent; it is discharged into the environment from the manufacture of chemicals, textiles, electronics, metals and plastics, pharmaceuticals and pesticides. [read more]

Health Concerns for Dichloromethane (methylene chloride):

  • Cancer
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Developmental/reproductive toxicity
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation
  • Occupational hazards
  • Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Multiple, additive exposure sources

Trans-1,2-Dichloroethene:

http://www.freedrinkingwater.com/water-contamination/12-dce-contaminants-removal-water.htm

What is 1,2-DCE and how is it used?

1,2-Dichloroethylene (1,2-DCE) is an odorless organic liquid that has two slightly different forms, a “cis” form and a “trans” form. Both the cis and trans forms – usually as a mixture – are used as a solvent for waxes and resins; in the extraction of rubber; as a refrigerant; in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and artificial pearls; in the extraction of oils and fats from fish and meat; and in making other organics.

What are the Health Effects?

Short-term: EPA has found cis- and trans-1,2-DCE to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: central nervous system depression.

Long-term: Both cis- and trans-1,2-DCE have the potential to cause liver, circulatory and nervous system damage from long-term exposure at levels above the MCL. The trans form is approximately twice as potent as the cis form in its ability to depress the central nervous system.

Cis-1,2 Dichloroethene:see above

1,1,1 Trichloroethane:

http://www.freedrinkingwater.com/water-contamination/111-tric-contaminants-removal-water.htm

What is 1,1,1-TCA and how is it used?

1,1,1-Trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) is an organic liquid with a chloroform-like odor. It is largely used as a solvent removing grease from machined metal products, in textile processing and dyeing and in aerosols.

What are the Health Effects?

Short-term: EPA has found 1,1,1-TCA to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: damage to the liver, nervous system and circulatory system.

Long-term: 1,1,1-TCA has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL: liver, nervous system and circulatory system damage.

Carbon tetrachloride:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2982

Status: Regulated – EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Carbon tetrachloride is an industrial solvent and refrigerant released as a pollutant from various chemical plants and the petroleum refining industry. [read more]

Health Concerns for Carbon tetrachloride:

  • Cancer
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Occupational hazards
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation
  • Developmental/reproductive toxicity
  • Allergies/immunotoxicity
  • Biochemical or cellular level changes
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
  • Neurotoxicity

1,2 Dichloroethane:

http://www.freedrinkingwater.com/water-contamination/12-dca-contaminants-removal-water.htm

What is 1,2-DCA and how is it used?

1,2-Dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) is a colorless, oily, organic liquid with a sweet, chloroform-like odor. The greatest use of 1,2-dichloroethane is in making chemicals involved in plastics, rubber and synthetic textile fibers. Other uses include: as a solvent for resins and fats, photography, photocopying, cosmetics, drugs; and as a fumigant for grains and orchards.

What are the Health Effects?

Short-term: EPA has found 1,2-dichloroethane to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: central nervous system disorders, and adverse lung, kidney, liver circulatory and gastrointestinal effects.

Long-term: 1,2-Dichloroethane has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL: cancer.

Benzene:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2990

Status: Regulated – EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Benzene is a petroleum chemical that contaminates drinking water due to emissions from petroleum and chemical industries, leaching landfills and gas storage tanks. [read more]

Health Concerns for Benzene:

  • Cancer
  • Developmental/reproductive toxicity
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Allergies/immunotoxicity
  • Multiple, additive exposure sources
  • Occupational hazards
  • Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Miscellaneous
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation
  • Neurotoxicity

Trichloroethene:

http://www.freedrinkingwater.com/water-contamination/trichloroethylene-contaminants-removal-water.htm

What is Trichloroethylene and how is it used?

Trichloroethylene is a colorless or blue organic liquid with a chloroform-like odor. The greatest use of trichloroethylene is to remove grease from fabricated metal parts and some textiles.

What are the Health Effects?

Some people who drink water containing trichloroethylene in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.

1,2-Dichloropropane:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2983

Status: Regulated – EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

1,2-Dichloropropane is used as a solvent and intermediate in the production of dry cleaning agent perchloroethylene; it is released as a pollutant from chemical factories, landfills, and from agricultural soil due to former use as a fumigant. [read more]

Health Concerns for 1,2-Dichloropropane:

  • Cancer
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Developmental/reproductive toxicity
  • Occupational hazards
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation
  • Neurotoxicity
  • Miscellaneous

Toluene:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2991

Status: Regulated – EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Toluene is a pollutant from petroleum refineries and a chemical used in plastics manufacturing as well as the pharmaceutical, paint and furniture industries. [read more]

Health Concerns for Toluene:

  • Developmental/reproductive toxicity
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Allergies/immunotoxicity
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation
  • Occupational hazards
  • Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
  • Cancer
  • Neurotoxicity
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Miscellaneous

1,1,2-Trichloroethane:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2985

Status: Regulated – EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

1,1,2-Trichloroethane is used in production of synthetic fibers, plastic wraps and adhesives; it is released as a pollutant from various chemical manufacturing factories. [read more]

Health Concerns for 1,1,2-Trichloroethane:

  • Cancer
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation
  • Occupational hazards
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Neurotoxicity
  • Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Tetrachloroethene:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetrachloroethylene

Tetrachloroethylene, also known under the systematic name tetrachloroethene, or perchloroethylene (“perc” or “PERC”), and many other names, is a chlorocarbon with the formula Cl2C=CCl2. It is a colorless liquid widely used for dry cleaning of fabrics, hence it is sometimes called “dry-cleaning fluid.” It has a sweet odor detectable by most people at a concentration of 1 part per million (1 ppm). Worldwide production was about one million metric tons in 1985.[3]

Health and safety

The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified tetrachloroethylene as a Group 2A carcinogen, which means that it is probably carcinogenic to humans.[7] Like many chlorinated hydrocarbons, tetrachloroethylene is a central nervous system depressant and can enter the body through respiratory or dermal exposure.[8] Tetrachloroethylene dissolves fats from the skin, potentially resulting in skin irritation.

Animal studies and a study of 99 twins showed there is a “lot of circumstantial evidence” that exposure to tetrachloroethylene increases the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease ninefold. Larger population studies are planned.[9]

At temperatures over 315 °C (599 °F), such as in welding, tetrachloroethylene can be oxidized into phosgene, an extremely poisonous gas.[10] Therefore, tetrachloroethylene should not be used near welding operations, flames, or hot surfaces.[11]

 Chlorobenzene:

http://www.freedrinkingwater.com/water-contamination/chlorobenzene-contaminants-removal-water.htm

What is Chlorobenzene and how is it used?

Chlorobenzene is a colorless organic liquid with a faint, almond-like odor. The greatest use of chlorobenzene is in the manufacture of other organic chemicals, dyestuffs and insecticides. It is also a solvent for adhesives, drugs, rubber, paints and dry-cleaning, and as a fiber-swelling agent in textile processing.

What are the Health Effects?

Short-term: EPA has found chlorobenzene to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: anesthetic effects and impaired liver and kidney function.

Long-term: Chlorobenzene has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL: liver, kidney and central nervous system damage.

 

Ethyl Benzene:

http://www.freedrinkingwater.com/water-contamination/ethylbenzene-contaminants-removal-water.htm

What is Ethylbenzene and how is it used?

Ethylbenzene is a colorless organic liquid with a sweet, gasoline-like odor. The greatest use – over 99 percent – of ethylbenzene is to make styrene, another organic liquid used as a building block for many plastics. It is also used as a solvent for coatings, and in making rubber and plastic wrap.

What are the Health Effects?

Short-term: EPA has found ethylbenzene to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: drowsiness, fatigue, headache and mild eye and respiratory irritation.

Long-term: Ethylbenzene has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL: damage to the liver, kidneys, central nervous system and eyes.

 M,p-Xylene:

http://www.freedrinkingwater.com/water-contamination/xylene-contaminants-removal-water.htm

What is Xylene and how is it used?

A xylene is any of a group of very similar organic compounds. They are clear liquids with a sweet odor. The greatest use of xylenes is as a solvent which is much safer than benzene. Other uses include: in gasoline as part of the BTX component (benzene-toluene-xylene); Xylene mixtures are used to make phthalate plasticizers, polyester fiber, film and fabricated items.

What are the Health Effects?

Short-term: EPA has found xylenes to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: disturbances of cognitive abilities, balance, and coordination.

Long-term: Xylenes has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL: damage to the central nervous system, liver and kidneys.

 

Styrene:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2996

Status: Regulated – EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Styrene is a pollutant from plastics, rubber and other industrial chemical factories and from landfill leachate. [read more]

Health Concerns for Styrene:

  • Allergies/immunotoxicity
  • Endocrine disruption
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Cancer
  • Occupational hazards
  • Developmental/reproductive toxicity
  • Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
  • Neurotoxicity
  • Biochemical or cellular level changes
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Miscellaneous
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation
  • Multiple, additive exposure sources

Styrene

Styrene is a major industrial chemical with annual U.S. production exceeding 10 billion pounds (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) 1998b; Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) 2002d). Styrene is used in the manufacturing of polystyrene plastics and resins, and in the synthesis of styrene-containing copolymers. Styrene-containing products are used for packaging materials, carpet backing, pipes, beverage containers, electrical and insulating materials, and automotive components (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) 1992d, 2007f). These products may contain styrene at concentrations of 30 to 50 percent. Consumers may also be exposed to potentially high levels of styrene leaching from polystyrene containers (USEPA 2002p).

Styrene contaminates water supplies due to industrial waste discharges from rubber and plastic factories and leaching from landfills. In 2000, the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) reported that U.S. industrial facilities released 49,512,737 pounds of styrene into environment, almost 95 percent of which was through air emissions. Fifteen states release more than one million pounds of styrene to the environment (TN, IN, TX, FL, GA, CA, OH, IL, MI, NC, PA, AL, MN, SC, WI). More than half the total U.S. emissions are reported by the plastics industry. Other major emission sources include the transportation equipment and chemical industries (USEPA 2009i).

According to EPA, chronic exposure to levels of styrene in drinking water above the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 0.1 parts per million (ppm) can cause damage to liver and nerve tissue, and possibly cancer (USEPA 2009b). Other findings in laboratory animals include damage to the kidneys and testes (ATSDR 2007f). Some studies have linked occupational styrene exposure to impaired neurological activity, such as decreased visuomotor performance, psychomotor performance and EEG abnormalities (ATSDR 2007f).

Styene is classified as a possible human carcinogen by the International Agency on Research on Cancer (IARC) because a breakdown product of styrene, called styrene-7,8-oxide, damages DNA (HSDB 2002d; IARC 2008b). In animal studies, chronic exposure to styrene has caused increases in mammary tumors and possibly lung tumors (ATSDR 1992d).

 

1,4-Dichlorobenzene:

http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/hlthef/dich-ben.html

Uses

  • 1,4-Dichlorobenzene is used mainly as a fumigant for the control of moths, molds, and mildews, and as a space deodorant for toilets and refuse containers. (1)
  • 1,4-Dichlorobenzene is also used as an intermediate in the production of other chemicals, in the control of tree-boring insects, and in the control of mold in tobacco seeds. (1)

Health Hazard Information

Acute Effects:

  • Acute exposure to 1,4-dichlorobenzene via inhalation in humans results in irritation to the eyes, skin, and throat. (2)
  • Animal studies have reported effects on the blood, liver, and kidneys from oral exposure to 1,4-dichlorobenzene. (1)
  • Tests involving acute exposure of rats and mice have shown 1,4-dichlorobenzene to have moderate toxicity from oral exposure. (3)

Chronic Effects (Noncancer):

  • Chronic exposure to 1,4-dichlorobenzene by inhalation in humans results in effects on the liver, skin, and CNS (e.g., cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria, weakness in limbs, and hyporeflexia). (1)
  • Animal studies have reported effects on the respiratory system, liver, and kidneys from inhalation exposure to 1,4-dichlorobenzene, while oral studies have reported effects on the blood, liver, and kidneys. (1,4)
  • The Reference Concentration (RfC) for 1,4-dichlorobenzene is 0.8 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3) based on increased liver weights in rats. The RfC is an estimate (with uncertainty spanning perhaps an order of magnitude) of a continuous inhalation exposure to the human population (including sensitive subgroups), that is likely to be without appreciable risk of deleterious noncancer effects during a lifetime. It is not a direct estimator of risk but rather a reference point to gauge the potential effects. At exposures increasingly greater than the RfC, the potential for adverse health effects increases. Lifetime exposure above the RfC does not imply that an adverse health effect would necessarily occur. (4)
  • EPA has medium confidence in the study on which the RfC was based because the critical study employed an extensive reproductive protocol including histopathologic examination of tissues of adults and offspring; medium confidence in the database because there are a number of supporting studies for the developmental and reproductive toxicology database; and, consequently, medium confidence in the RfC. (4)
  • EPA has not established a Reference Dose (RfD) for 1,4-dichlorobenzene. (4)
  • ATSDR has established an intermediate oral minimal risk level (MRL) of 0.4 milligrams per kilogram body weight per day (mg/kg/d) based on liver effects in rats. The MRL is an estimate of the daily human exposure to a hazardous substance that is likely to be without appreciable risk of adverse noncancer health effects over a specified duration of exposure. (1)

Reproductive/Developmental Effects:

  • No information is available on the reproductive or developmental effects of 1,4-dichlorobenzene in humans. (1)
  • In one animal study, exposure of pregnant rats to 1,4-dichlorobenzene via inhalation did not result in developmental effects in the offspring. In another study, an increase in the incidence of an extra rib was reported in the fetuses of pregnant rats administered 1,4-dichlorobenzene by gavage. (1,2)
  • A study reported decreased number of live births, pup survival, and pup weights, but no birth defects in the offspring of animals exposed to 1,4-dichlorobenzene via inhalation. (4)

Cancer Risk:

  • No information is available on the carcinogenic effects of 1,4-dichlorobenzene in humans. (1)
  • No adequate animal cancer studies are available on exposure to 1,4-dichlorobenzene via inhalation. (1)
  • In an NTP study, 1,4-dichlorobenzene was found to cause kidney tumors in male rats and liver tumors in both sexes of mice when administered via gavage. (8)
  • EPA has classified 1,4-dichlorobenzene as a Group C, possible human carcinogen. (7)
  • EPA has calculated an oral cancer slope factor of 0.024 (mg/kg/d)-1. (7)

 

1,2-Dichlorobenzene:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1,2-Dichlorobenzene

1,2-Dichlorobenzene

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1,2-Dichlorobenzene[1]

1,2-Dichlorobenzene, or orthodichlorobenzene (ODCB), is an organic compound with the formula C6H4Cl2. This colourless liquid is poorly soluble in water but miscible with most organic solvents. It is a derivative of benzene, consisting of two adjacent chlorine centers.

Production and uses:

1,2-Dichlorobenzene is obtained as a side-product of the production of chlorobenzene:

It is mainly used as a precursor to 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene, an intermediate in the synthesis of agrochemicals.[4] In terms of niche applications, 1,2-dichlorobenzene is a versatile, high-boiling solvent. It is a preferred solvent for dissolving and working with fullerenes. It is an insecticide for termites and locust borers, historically used by the United States Forest Service to combat widespread bark beetle outbreaks.[5]

1,2-Dichlorobenzene is also used in softening and removing carbon-based contamination on metal surfaces.[6]

Safety

Data from human exposure to 1,2-dichlorobenzene shows that concentrations of 100 ppm have been reported to cause sporadic irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract.[7] The Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health have set occupational exposure limits at a ceiling of 50 ppm, over an eight-hour workday.[8]

Chlorobenzene

1,4-Dichlorobenzene

 

1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2378

Status: Regulated – EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene is a pollutant from textile finishing factories and industrial chemical manufacturing. [read more]

1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene

1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene is used as a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of dyes, polymers and herbicides; it also has industrial applications as a dielectric fluid, solvent, lubricant, degreasing agent, cleaning solution additive, wood preservative and heat transfer medium. Previously, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene had been used as a soil treatment for termite control, and its direct application to soils has resulted in water contamination (Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) 2002a). Over one million pounds of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene are produced or imported into the U.S. every year, making it a High Production Volume (HPV) chemical (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) 1998b).

1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene enters drinking water supplies from industrial releases into water and land (such as landfills, mixed into surface soil, spills, holding ponds, underground injections), primarily from its manufacture and use as a dye carrier (USEPA 2002b, 2009i).

According to the U.S. EPA, short-term exposure to drinking water contaminated with 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene above the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 0.07 parts per million (ppm) can cause damage to the liver, kidney and adrenal glands. Long-term exposure to levels above the MCL may cause adrenal damage (USEPA 2004b). Laboratory animal studies show that high doses of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene cause liver and lung tumors as well as damage to the kidney, thyroid, spleen and adrenal glands (California Environmental Protection Agency 1999b). Occupational exposure to 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene has been linked with anemia, chloracne (a type of dermatitis), and coughing up blood at high levels of exposure (California Environmental Protection Agency 1999b).

In a recent study, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene was detected in 65 percent of the serum samples and 100 percent of the ovarian follicular fluid samples of 75 Ontario women participating in fertility treatments. The author suggested that although it is unlikely that the low levels of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene detected may have caused reproductive disorders, further studies into the antiestrogenic effects of the compound would be warranted (Foster 1995).

Health Concerns for 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene:

  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation
  • Occupational hazards
  • Developmental/reproductive toxicity
  • Cancer
  • Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Neurotoxicity

 

Xylene:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2955

Status: Regulated – EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Xylenes are a group of chemicals produced from petroleum and released as pollutants from chemical, plastics and synthetic fiber industries as well as printing, painting, and laboratory uses. [read more]

Health Concerns for Xylenes (total):

  • Neurotoxicity
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Allergies/immunotoxicity
  • Developmental/reproductive toxicity
  • Occupational hazards
  • Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
  • Endocrine disruption
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation
  • Cancer
  • Miscellaneous

Xylenes (total)

Xylene is a chemical produced from petroleum. The label “total xylenes” is used to describe the three forms of xylene (m-, o- and p-xylene). Xylenes are used as solvents in the printing, rubber and leather industries. They are also used as ingredients in fabric and paper coatings and as chemical intermediates in the chemical, plastics and synthetic fiber industries (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) 1995d, 2007g).

Xylenes are classified as a High Production Volume (HPV) chemical, with 18 billion pounds produced in the U.S. annually (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) 1990a, 2002q; ATSDR 2007g). Every year, U.S. industrial facilities release tens of millions of pounds of xylenes into the environment. Sixteen states reported releases of more than one million pounds (MI, IN, TX, OH, MO, TN, AL, IL, MS, GA, LA, PA, KY, WI, KS and IA). Major industries reporting releases include the transportation equipment, metals, chemical, plastics, lumber, petroleum, electrical equipment and furniture industries (USEPA 2009i).

A drinking water contaminant fact sheet written by EPA notes that short-term exposure to xylenes in drinking water above the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 parts per million (ppm) may cause disturbances of cognitive abilities, balance and coordination. Long-term exposures to levels above the MCL can damage the liver, kidney and nervous system (USEPA 2009b). Other effects noted in laboratory animals include changes in brain response to visual stimulation, altered brain neurotransmitter and liver enzyme activity or levels. Also, experimental animals exposed to high doses during pregnancy are more likely to have early pregnancy loss and offspring with decreased birth weight (ATSDR 2007g).

Occupational exposure to xylenes can lead to nose and throat irritation, labored breathing and impaired pulmonary function. Inhalation of xylene can also lead to headaches, stomach discomfort, dizziness, forgetfulness, anxiety, impaired body balance, and effects on short-term memory, reaction time and numerical ability. High, long-term levels of exposure can lead to liver toxicity, respiratory depression and death (ATSDR 1995d).

Dichlorodifluoromethane: or Carbon tetrachloride or Chlorofluorocarbon

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2212

Status: Unregulated – EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Dichlorodifluoromethane (Freon 12) is a chlorofluorocarbon refrigerant and aerosol spray propellant; it was banned under the Montreal Protocol as of 2000 because of its ozone-depleting properties.

 

Health Concerns for Dichlorodifluoromethane:

  • Occupational hazards
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorofluorocarbon

A chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) is an organic compound that contains only carbon, chlorine, and fluorine, produced as a volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane. They are also commonly known by the DuPont brand name Freon. The most common representative is dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12 or Freon-12). Many CFCs have been widely used as refrigerants, propellants (in aerosol applications), and solvents. Because CFCs contribute to ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere, the manufacture of such compounds has been phased out under the Montreal Protocol, and they are being replaced with other products such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)[1] (e.g., R-410A), hydrocarbons,[2] and CO2. However, these replacements are sometimes considered pollutants in their own right.[3]

 

Chloromethane:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2210

Status: Unregulated – EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Chloromethane is a naturally occuring chemical that forms during combustion of plant material; it may be released from the manufacture of silicone, rubber and pesticides, and also forms as a byproduct of water disinfection.

Health Concerns for Chloromethane:

  • Developmental/reproductive toxicity
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Cancer
  • Occupational hazards
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation
  • Neurotoxicity
  • Miscellaneous

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chloromethane

Chloromethane, also called methyl chloride, R-40 or HCC 40, is a chemical compound of the group of organic compounds called haloalkanes. It was once widely used as a refrigerant. It is a colorless extremely flammable gas with a mildly sweet odor, which is, however, detected at possibly toxic levels. Due to concerns about its toxicity, it is no longer present in consumer products. Chloromethane was first synthesized by the French chemists Jean-Baptiste Dumas and Eugene Peligot in 1835 by boiling a mixture of methanol, sulfuric acid, and sodium chloride. This method is similar to that used today.

 

Bromomethane:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2214

Status: Unregulated – EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Bromomethane is a pesticide used for soil, grain, indoor air and other applications, and a solvent used to extract vegetable and seed oils.

 

Health Concerns for Bromomethane:

  • Developmental/reproductive toxicity
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Endocrine disruption
  • Occupational hazards
  • Cancer
  • Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation
  • Neurotoxicity

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bromomethane

Bromomethane, commonly known as methyl bromide, is an organobromine compound with formula CH3Br. This colorless, odorless, nonflammable gas is produced both industrially and particularly biologically. It has a tetrahedral shape and it is a recognized ozone-depleting chemical. It was used extensively as a pesticide until being phased out by most countries in the early 2000s.

Chloroethane:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2216

Status: Unregulated – EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Chloroethane is a volatile solvent used in the manufacture of dyes, drugs, perfumes, insecticides and gasoline additives; it is also used as a refrigerant and anesthetic, and may form in tap water as a result of chlorination.

Health Concerns for Chloroethane:

  • Cancer
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Developmental/reproductive toxicity
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Miscellaneous
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation
  • Neurotoxicity

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chloroethane

Chloroethane or monochloroethane, commonly known by its old name ethyl chloride, is a chemical compound with chemical formula C 2H 5Cl, once widely used in producing tetraethyllead, a gasoline additive. It is a colorless, flammable gas or refrigerated liquid with a faintly sweet odor.

4-Chlorotoluene:

I had a helluva time finding definitive information on this chemical!  WTF!

http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/hlthef/benzylch.html

http://www.microkat.gr/msds/Benzyl%20chloride.htm

Benzyl chloride

  • a-Chlorotoluene
  • o-Chlorotoluene
  • 1-Chloro-2-methyl benzene
  • (Chloromethyl) benzene
  • Chloromethylbenzene
  • Tolyl chloride
Formula C6H5CH2Cl
Structure
Description Colorless liquid, unpleasant, irritating, pungent odor, lachrymator.
Uses Manufacture benzyl compounds, perfumes, pharmaceutical products, dyes, synthetic tannins, & artificial resins.

Health.

Exposure limit(s) TLV: 1 ppm; 5.2 mg/m3 (as TWA) (ACGIH 1992-1993). OSHA PEL: TWA 1 ppm (5 mg/m3) NIOSH REL: C 1 ppm (5 mg/m3) 15-minute NIOSH IDLH: 10 ppm

Carcinogin G-A3, I-2A, CP65

Poison_Class 3

Exposure effects Mild leukopenia(abnormally low number of circulating white blood cells), liver function disturbances and kidney problems.

Ingestion Corrosive. Swallowing can cause severe burns of the mouth, throat, and stomach, leading to death. Can cause sore throat, vomiting, diarrhea. May also cause systemic poisoning with symptoms paralleling inhalation.

Inhalation Causes severe irritation of upper respiratory tract with coughing, burns, breathing difficulty, and possible coma. Causes chemical burns to the respiratory tract. Inhalation may be fatal as a result of spasm, inflammation, edema of the larynx and bronchi, chemical pneumonitis and pulmonary edema.

Skin Prolonged and/or repeated contact may cause irritation and/or dermatitis. Contact with liquid is corrosive and causes severe burns and ulceration.

Eyes Contact with liquid or vapor causes severe burns and possible irreversible eye damage. Lachrymator.

 

Trichlofofluoromethane:

http://www.fluoridealert.org/wp-content/pesticides/trichlorofluoromethane-page.htm

USES: This compound is used as a solvent, chemical intermediate, blowing agent for polyurethane foams and polymeric foams, dry cleaning agent, aerosol propellant and in fire extinguishers. It is also used in the manufacturing of aerosol sprays, commercial refrigeration equipment and cleaning compounds.

ACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS: When heated to decomposition this compound may emit toxic fumes of F- and Cl-. It may also emit toxic fumes of phosgene, HCl, HF acids and possibly carbonyl halides.

Ref: National Toxicology Program, Chemical Health & Safety Information

Adverse Effects:

Bone

Brain

CNS

Endocrine: Breast

Heart

Leukemia

Lung

Environmental Effects:

Class 1 Ozone Depleting Substance. Lifetime of Global Warming Potential: 45 years

Very resistant to chemical and biological degradation and likely to be a persistent contaminant if it reaches groundwater.

Bioconcentration in organisms is low to moderate.

 

Acetone:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2243

Status: Unregulated – EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Acetone is a ubiquitous industrial solvent and chemical intermediate used in manufacture of plastic, fibers, cosmetics, photographic film and many other kinds of consumer goods.

 

Health Concerns for Acetone:

  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Cancer
  • Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
  • Developmental/reproductive toxicity
  • Occupational hazards
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Miscellaneous
  • Neurotoxicity
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation
  • Multiple, additive exposure sources

 

https://www.osha.gov/dts/chemicalsampling/data/CH_216600.html – Acetone

 

Methyl Iodide:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methyl_iodide

Methyl iodide, also called iodomethane, and commonly abbreviated “MeI”, is the chemical compound with the formula CH3I. It is a dense, colorless, volatile liquid. In terms of chemical structure, it is related to methane by replacement of one hydrogen atom by an atom of iodine. It is naturally emitted by rice plantations in small amounts.[5] It is also produced in vast quantities estimated to be greater than 214,000 tons annually by algae and kelp in the world’s temperate oceans and in lesser amounts on land due to terrestrial fungi and bacteria. It is used in organic synthesis as a source of methyl groups.

Methyl iodide had been approved for use as a pesticide by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in 2007 as a pre-plant biocide used to control insects, plant parasitic nematodes, soil borne pathogens, and weed seeds.[6] The compound was registered for use as a preplant soil treatment for field grown strawberries, peppers, tomatoes, grape vines, ornamentals and turf and nursery grown strawberries, stone fruits, tree nuts, and conifer trees. After the discovery phase in a consumer lawsuit, the manufacturer withdrew the fumigant citing its lack of market viability.[7]

Other reactions

In the Monsanto process, MeI forms in situ from the reaction of methanol and hydrogen iodide. The CH3I then reacts with carbon monoxide in the presence of a rhodium complex to form acetyl iodide, the precursor to acetic acid after hydrolysis. Most acetic acid is prepared by this method.

MeI is used to prepare the Grignard reagent, methylmagnesium iodide (“MeMgI”), a common source of “Me−”. The use of MeMgI has been somewhat superseded by the commercially available methyllithium. MeI can also be used to prepare dimethylmercury, by reacting 2 moles of MeI with a 2/1-molar sodium amalgam (2 moles of sodium, 1 mol of mercury).

Use as a pesticide

Methyl iodide had also been proposed for use as a fungicide, herbicide, insecticide, nematicide, and as a soil disinfectant, replacing methyl bromide (also known as bromomethane) (banned under the Montreal Protocol). Manufactured by Arysta LifeScience and sold under the brand name MIDAS, methyl iodide is registered as a pesticide in the U.S., Mexico, Morocco, Japan, Turkey, and New Zealand and registration is pending in Australia, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Chile, Egypt, Israel, South Africa and other countries.[12] The first commercial applications of MIDAS soil fumigant in California began in Fresno County, in May, 2011.[citation needed]

The use of methyl iodide as a fumigant has drawn concern. For example, 54 chemists and physicians contacted the U.S. EPA in a letter, saying “We are skeptical of U.S. EPA’s conclusion that the high levels of exposure to methyl iodide that are likely to result from broadcast applications are ‘acceptable’ risks. U.S. EPA has made many assumptions about toxicology and exposure in the risk assessment that have not been examined by independent scientific peer reviewers for adequacy or accuracy. Additionally, none of U.S. EPA’s calculations account for the extra vulnerability of the unborn fetus and children to toxic insults.”[13] EPA Assistant Administrator Jim Gulliford replied saying, “We are confident that by conducting such a rigorous analysis and developing highly restrictive provisions governing its use, there will be no risks of concern,” and in October the EPA approved the use of methyl iodide as a soil fumigant in the United States.

The California Department of Pesticide Regulation (DPR) concluded that methyl iodide is “highly toxic,” that “any anticipated scenario for the agricultural or structural fumigation use of this agent would result in exposures to a large number of the public and thus would have a significant adverse impact on the public health”, and that adequate control of the chemical in these circumstances would be “difficult, if not impossible.”[14] Methyl iodide was approved as a pesticide in California that December.[15] A lawsuit was filed on January 5, 2011, challenging California’s approval of methyl iodide. Subsequently, the manufacturer withdrew the fumigant and requested that California Department of Pesticide Regulation cancel its California registration, citing its lack of market viability.[7]

Safety

Toxicity and biological effects

According to the United States Department of Agriculture methyl iodide exhibits moderate to high acute toxicity for inhalation and ingestion.[16] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) lists inhalation, skin absorption, ingestion, and eye contact as possible exposure routes with target organs of the eyes, skin, respiratory system, and the central nervous system. Symptoms may include eye irritation, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, ataxia, slurred speech, and dermatitis.[17]

Methyl iodide has an LD50 for oral administration to rats 76 mg/kg, and in the liver it undergoes rapid conversion to S-methylglutathione.[18]

In its risk assessment of methyl iodide, the U.S. EPA conducted an exhaustive scientific and medical literature search over the past 100 years for reported cases of human poisonings attributable to the compound. Citing the EPA as its source, the California Department of Pesticide Regulation concluded, “Over the past century, only 11 incidents of iodomethane poisoning have been reported in the published literature.” (Hermouet, C. et al. 1996 & Appel, G.B. et al. 1975) “An updated literature search on May 30, 2007 for iodomethane poisoning produced only one additional case report.” (Schwartz MD, et al. 2005). All but one were industrial—not agricultural—accidents, and the remaining case of poisoning was an apparent suicide. Methyl iodide is routinely and regularly used in industrial processes as well as in most university and college chemistry departments for study and learning related to a variety of organic chemical reactions.

Carcinogenicity in mammals

It is considered a potential occupational carcinogen by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.[19] The International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded based on studies performed after methyl iodide was Proposition 65 listed that: “Methyl iodide is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).” As of 2007 the Environmental Protection Agency classifies it as “not likely to be carcinogenic to humans in the absence of altered thyroid hormone homeostatis,” i.e. it is a human carcinogen but only at doses large enough to disrupt thyroid function (via excess iodide).[20] However this finding is disputed by the Pesticide Action Network which states that the EPA’s cancer rating “appears to be based solely on a single rat inhalation study in which 66% of the control group and 54-62% of the rats in the other groups died before the end of the study”. They go on to state: “The EPA appears to be dismissing early peer-reviewed studies in favor of two nonpeer-reviewed studies conducted by the registrant that are flawed in design and execution.”[21] Despite requests by the U.S. EPA to the Pesticide Action Network to bring forth scientific evidence of their claims, they have not done so.

Carbon disulfide:

http://www.freedrinkingwater.com/water_health/cancer-tap-water-contaminants-link.htm

Recently, numerous studies have been conducted in order to determine exactly which chemicals are showing up in the water supply and exactly how dangerous these chemicals are. These studies have shown that the most prominent chemical contaminant in tap water all over the country is hexavalent chromium, also known as chromium-6. Hexavalent chromium is a known carcinogen and can start eating away at the body after only a relatively small amount of exposure. Other types of carcinogens and neurotoxins found in water supplies include: benzene, chlorine, fluoride, arsenic, lead, dimethyl disulfide, carbon disulfide, Napthalene, trimethyl benzene and the list goes on.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_disulfide

Carbon disulfide is a colorless volatile liquid with the formula CS2. The compound is used frequently as a building block in organic chemistry as well as an industrial and chemical non-polar solvent. It has an “ether-like” odor, but commercial samples are typically contaminated with foul-smelling impurities, such as carbonyl sulfide.[7]

Uses

Fumigation

Used for fumigation in airtight storage warehouses, airtight flat storages, bins, grain elevators, railroad box cars, shipholds, barges and cereal mills.[14]

Insecticide

Carbon disulfide is used as an insecticide for the fumigation of grains, nursery stock, in fresh fruit conservation and as a soil disinfectant against insects and nematodes.[15]

Solvent

Carbon disulfide is a solvent for phosphorus, sulfur, selenium, bromine, iodine, fats, resins, rubber, and asphalt.[16] It has been used in the purification of single-walled carbon nanotubes.[17]

Manufacturing

The principal industrial uses of carbon disulfide are the manufacture of viscose rayon, cellophane film, carbon tetrachloride and xanthogenates and electronic vacuum tubes.

Working Fluid

Various attempts were made in the 19th century to use carbon disulfide as the working fluid in steam engines and locomotive applications, due to its low boiling point; it would be either directly heated by the fuel, or would be used to recover waste heat from the combustion gases of other fuels and the condensing of steam in a traditional boiler. These experiments were never successful, both due to the low temperatures involved and the extreme risk of both poisoning and explosion.[18]

Spectroscope prisms

Due to its high optical dispersion it was used in some spectroscopes.[19]

Health effects

At high levels, carbon disulfide may be life-threatening because it affects the nervous system. Significant safety data comes from the viscose rayon industry, where both carbon disulfide as well as small amounts of H2S may be present.

Acrylonitrile:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2240

Status: Unregulated – EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Acrylonitrile is a chemical intermediate used in the manufacture of plastics, synthetic rubber, antioxidants, pharmaceuticals and dyes. [read more]

Health Concerns for Acrylonitrile:

  • Allergies/immunotoxicity
  • Cancer
  • Neurotoxicity
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Developmental/reproductive toxicity
  • Occupational hazards
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation
  • Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Miscellaneous

Acrylonitrile

Acrylonitrile is a chemical intermediate used in the production of many plastics and rubber products (NJ Department of Health and Senior Services 1998a). It has been found in the water and soil near manufacturing plants and hazardous waste sites. Acrylonitrile usually breaks down in about one to two weeks in water, although it can take a year or more in certain situations (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) 1990a).

Acrylonitrile causes cancer in animals (International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) 2008b) as well as respiratory irritation, birth defects and neurological disorders such as paralysis. Cancer-causing ability in humans has not been fully established, but the following health effects have been associated with human exposure: respiratory irritation, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting, skin irritation, lightheadedness, breathlessness, dizziness, numbness and headaches (ATSDR 1990a).

Annually, millions of pounds of acrylonitrile are released from the chemical-producing industry, especially from plastics manufacturing (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) 2009i).

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acrylonitrile

Acrylonitrile is an organic compound with the formula CH2CHCN. It is a colorless volatile liquid, although commercial samples can be yellow due to impurities. In terms of its molecular structure, it consists of a vinyl group linked to a nitrile. It is an important monomer for the manufacture of useful plastics such as polyacrylonitrile. It is reactive and toxic.

 

Tert-Butyl methyl ether (MTBE):

http://www.freedrinkingwater.com/water-contamination/mtbe-contaminants-removal-water.htm

What is MTBE? 

MTBE (methyl-t-butyl ether) is a member of a group of chemicals commonly known as fuel oxygenates. Oxygenates are added to fuel to increase its oxygen content. MTBE is used in gasoline throughout the United States to reduce carbon monoxide and ozone levels caused by auto emissions. MTBE replaces the use of lead as an octane enhancer since 1979. 

How does MTBE contaminate water supplies? 

Releases of MTBE to ground and surface water can occur through leaking underground storage tanks and pipelines, spills, emissions from marine engines into lakes and reservoirs, and to some extent from air deposition.

How do I know if I have MTBE in my water? 

You can determine if your water contains MTBE the following ways. If your drinking water is supplied by a public water system, you can contact the system directly and ask whether they monitor for MTBE and what levels, if any, have been detected. In 2001, public water systems serving most of the population will be required to monitor for MTBE. If you have a private well, your local health department may be able to tell you if MTBE has been found in water in your area.

How can I remove MTBE from my water? 

Public water systems can use existing technologies such as air stripping, granular activated carbon (GAC), reverse osmosis with activated carbon block as pre-filtrations, and advanced oxidation to remove MTBE contamination. Some home treatment units can also remove MTBE in tap water.

 

1,1-Dichloroethane:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2978

Status: Unregulated – EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

1,1-Dichloroethane is used in industrial chemical synthesis, as a solvent for plastics, paint, varnish, and finish removers and as an insecticide/fumigant.

 

Health Concerns for 1,1-Dichloroethane:

  • Cancer
  • Developmental/reproductive toxicity
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Allergies/immunotoxicity
  • Endocrine disruption
  • Neurotoxicity
  • Occupational hazards
  • Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation
  • Miscellaneous

 

 

Vinyl acetate:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2447

Status: Unregulated – EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Vinyl acetate is an industrial chemical used in the production of synthetic polymer polyvinyl acetate.

 

Health Concerns for Vinyl acetate:

  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Multiple, additive exposure sources
  • Cancer
  • Neurotoxicity
  • Occupational hazards
  • Developmental/reproductive toxicity
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Miscellaneous
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vinyl_acetate

Vinyl acetate is an organic compound with the formula CH3CO2CHCH2. A colorless liquid with a pungent odor, it is the precursor to polyvinyl acetate, an important polymer in industry.

Production

The worldwide production capacity of vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) was estimated at 6,154,000 tonnes/annum in 2007, with most capacity concentrated in the United States (1,585,000 all in Texas), China (1,261,000), Japan (725,000) and Taiwan (650,000).[2] The average list price for 2008 was $1600/tonne. Celanese is the largest producer (ca 25% of the worldwide capacity), while other significant producers include China Petrochemical Corporation (7%), Chang Chun Group (6%) and LyondellBasell (5%).[2]

It is a key ingredient in furniture-glue.

2,2-Dichloropropane:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2416

Status: Unregulated – EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

2,2-Dichloropropane is an intermediate used in chemical manufacturing.

 

Health Concerns for 2,2-Dichloropropane:

  • Ecotoxicology
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation

 

2-Butanone:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butanone

Butanone, also known as methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), is an organic compound with the formula CH3C(O)CH2CH3. This colorless liquid ketone has a sharp, sweet odor reminiscent of butterscotch and acetone. It is produced industrially on a large scale, and also occurs in trace amounts in nature.[4] It is soluble in water and is commonly used as an industrial solvent.[5]

Production

Butanone may be produced by oxidation of 2-butanol. The dehydrogenation of 2-butanol using a catalyst is catalyzed by copper, zinc, or bronze:

CH3CH(OH)CH2CH3 → CH3C(O)CH2CH3 + H2

This is used to produce approximately 700 million kilograms yearly. Other syntheses that have been examined but not implemented include Wacker oxidation of 2-butene and oxidation of isobutylbenzene, which is analogous to the industrial production of acetone.[4]

Both liquid-phase oxidation of heavy naphtha and the Fischer-Tropsch reaction produce mixed oxygenate streams, from which 2-butanone is extracted by fractionation.[6]

Butanone is biosynthesized by some trees and found in some fruits and vegetables in small amounts. It is released to the air from car and truck exhausts.

Applications

As a solvent

Butanone is an effective and common solvent[5] and is used in processes involving gums, resins, cellulose acetate and nitrocellulose coatings and in vinyl films.[7] For this reason it finds use in the manufacture of plastics, textiles, in the production of paraffin wax, and in household products such as lacquer, varnishes, paint remover, a denaturing agent for denatured alcohol, glues, and as a cleaning agent. It has similar solvent properties to acetone but boils at a higher temperature and has a significantly slower evaporation rate.[8] Butanone is also used in dry erase markers as the solvent of the erasable dye.

As a plastic welding agent

As butanone dissolves polystyrene and many other plastics, it is sold as “model cement” for use in connecting parts of scale model kits. Though often considered an adhesive, it is actually functioning as a welding agent in this context.

Other uses

Butanone is the precursor to methyl ethyl ketone peroxide, which is a catalyst for some polymerization reactions such as crosslinking of unsaturated polyester resins.

Safety

Flammability

Butanone can react with most oxidizing materials, and can produce fires.[5] It is moderately explosive; it requires only a small flame or spark to cause a vigorous reaction.[5] Butanone fires should be extinguished with carbon dioxide, dry agents, or alcohol-resistant foam.[5] Concentrations in the air high enough to be flammable are intolerable to humans due to the irritating nature of the vapor.[8]

Health effects

Butanone is an irritant, causing irritation to the eyes and nose of humans.[8] Serious health effects in animals have been seen only at very high levels. These included skeletal birth defects and low birth weight in mice, when they inhaled MEK at the highest dose tested (3000 ppm for 7 hours/day).[9] There are no long-term studies with animals breathing or drinking MEK.[10] and no studies for carcinogenicity in animals breathing or drinking MEK.[11]:96 There is some evidence that methyl ethyl ketone can potentiate the toxicity of other solvents, in contrast to the calculation of mixed solvent exposures by simple addition of exposures.[12]

In 2005, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency removed butanone from the list of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). After technical review and consideration of public comments, EPA concluded that potential exposures to butanone emitted from industrial processes may not reasonably be anticipated to cause human health or environmental problems.[citation needed] As of 2010, some reviewers have advised caution in using methylethyl ketone because of reports of neuropsychological effects. [13]

Butanone is listed as a Table II precursor under the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.[14]

Bromochloromethane:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2430

Status: Unregulated – EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Bromochloromethane is a tap water disinfection byproduct; it is also used as an intermediate in chemical manufacturing and a fire extinguishing agent.

 

Health Concerns for Bromochloromethane:

  • Cancer
  • Occupational hazards
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bromochloromethane

It was invented for use in fire extinguishers by the Germans during the mid-40s, in an attempt to create a less-toxic, more effective alternative to carbon tetrachloride. This was a concern in aircraft and tanks as carbon tetrachloride produced highly toxic by-products when discharged onto a fire. CBM was slightly less toxic, and used up until the late 1960s, being officially banned by the NFPA for use in fire extinguishers in 1969, as safer and more effective agents such as halon 1211 and 1301 were developed. Due to its ozone depletion potential its production was banned from January 1, 2002, at the Eleventh Meeting of the Parties for the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.

Tetrahydrofuran:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2263

Status: Unregulated – EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Tetrahydrofuran is an intermediate in chemical manufacturing to produce food storage and packaging materials, rubber, resins and plastics, and is a solvent for dyes and lacquers. [read more

Health Concerns for Tetrahydrofuran:

  • Cancer
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Developmental/reproductive toxicity
  • Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
  • Occupational hazards
  • Miscellaneous
  • Neurotoxicity

Chloroform:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2941

Status: Regulated – EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Chloroform is a disinfection byproduct from the trihalomethane (THM) family, and is formed when chlorine, chloramines or other disinfectants react with organic and inorganic matter in water. [read more]

Chloroform

Chloroform is a carcinogenic pollutant that forms when disinfection agents such as chlorine and chloramine react with organic matter in drinking water sources and in wastewater treatment (Richardson 2007; International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) 2008b).

Chloroform pollution in the environment also comes from industry releases (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) 1997b). The paper industry accounts for nearly half of the 1.5 million lbs of chloroform released in 2002, followed by the chemical manufacturing and solvent recovery industries (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) 2009i)

In humans chloroform is known to cause nausea, vomiting, irregular heart beat, kidney damage, liver damage, dizziness, fatigue, drowsiness, insomnia, increased dreaming, impaired memory, and anorexia. In animals, chloroform is known to cause infertility, birth defects and cancer (ATSDR 1997b; Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) 2001b).

Health Concerns for Chloroform:

  • Cancer
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Multiple, additive exposure sources
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation
  • Occupational hazards
  • Endocrine disruption
  • Developmental/reproductive toxicity
  • Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
  • Biochemical or cellular level changes
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Neurotoxicity

http://www.freedrinkingwater.com/water_quality/quality2/j10-08-private-well-odor-resembling-chloroform.htm

MY PRIVATE WELL HAS AN ODOR THAT RESEMBLES CHLOROFORM. WHAT IS THE CAUSE OF THIS?

It is always a wise decision to be vigilant concerning the odor and taste of your drinking water, whether from surface or groundwater. Should your well water ever have an odor or taste problem, it should come as no shock given the volume of possible causes of it. There are at least 700 pollutants found in the drinking water, but the EPA is required to set standards for only about sixty of them, and these standards are routinely violated without consequence. Out of the 250,000 violations, the states took just over 2,600 enforcement actions, while the EPA took about 600. Municipalities struggle with outdated technology. Over 70,000 different chemical compounds are now in use by industry, agriculture, and private citizens, with 5,000 new and unproven chemical compounds being added into the environment each year. That amounts to 18 billion pounds of new pollutants every year.

So what is chloroform? Chloroform is also known as trichloromethane, methane chloride, or methyltrichloride. It is a colorless liquid with a pleasant, non-irritating odor and slightly sweet taste. Most of the chloroform found in the environment comes from industry. It will only burn when it reaches very high temperatures. Chloroform was one of the first inhaled anesthetics to be used during surgery, but it is not used for anesthesia today. Nearly all the chloroform made in the United States today is used to make other chemicals, but some is sold or traded to other countries. We also import chloroform. Chloroform enters the environment from chemical companies, paper mills, waste water from sewage treatment plants, and drinking water that contains chlorine. Chloroform can enter the air directly from factories that make or use it, and by evaporating from water and soil that contain it. It can enter water and soil when waste water that contains chlorine is released into water or soil. It may enter water and soil from spills and by leaks from storage and waste sites. In addition to its industrial production and use, small amounts of chloroform are formed as an unwanted product during the process of adding chlorine to water. Chlorine is added to most drinking water and many waste waters to destroy bacteria. There are many ways for chloroform to enter the environment, so small amounts of it are likely to be found almost everywhere.

 

1,1-Dichloropropene:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2410

Status: Unregulated – EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

1,1-Dichloropropene is a chlorinated volatile solvent with industrial uses and is found as pollutant in surface and groundwater.

 

Health Concerns for 1,1-Dichloropropene:

  • Occupational hazards
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Cancer
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Miscellaneous

On this EPA list with other chemicals listed here: http://www2.epa.gov/ccl/contaminant-candidate-list-2-ccl-2

Methyl methacrylate:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2295

Status: Unregulated – EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Methyl methacrylate is a manufactured chemical used in the industrial production of resins and plastics.

 

Health Concerns for Methyl methacrylate:

  • Allergies/immunotoxicity
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Multiple, additive exposure sources
  • Developmental/reproductive toxicity
  • Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
  • Cancer
  • Neurotoxicity
  • Occupational hazards
  • Biochemical or cellular level changes
  • Miscellaneous
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation
  • Ecotoxicology

 

http://www.ewg.org/research/greener-school-cleaning-supplies/impact-kids-health

*excerpt that mentions this chemical:

November 3, 2009

Greener School Cleaning Supplies: Impact on Kids’ Health

Students Face Health Risks from Air Contamination

“Many ingredients in conventional cleaning supplies cause asthma in previously healthy people, according to the Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics (AOEC), the leading international body concerned with the link between chemical exposures and asthma. Examples of recognized asthmagens used in cleaning products include a class of surfactants called ethanolamines (like monoethanolamine, diethanolamine, and triethanolamine) and a class of antibacterial agents known as quaternary ammonium compounds (like benzalkonium chloride, or alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride). More asthma-causing air contaminants specifically measured in EWG tests of cleaning supplies include formaldehyde, methyl methacrylate, and styrene. In addition, fragrances, which are common components of cleaners, are among the top five allergens in the world (de Groot 1997; Jansson 2001), and are known to trigger asthma attacks (Norback 1995; Millqvist 1996).

Several studies also conclude that both occupational and non-occupational use of cleaning products are linked to increased risk of asthma (Medina-Ramon 2005, 2006; Arif 2009; Bernstein 2009). Teachers have high levels of asthma when compared to the general workforce (NIOSH 2004; Mazurek 2008), and a recent study of California and three other states noted that many teachers specifically report exposures to cleaning supplies in association with development of work-related asthma (Mazurek 2008).”

Dibromomethane:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2408

Status: Unregulated – EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Dibromomethane is an unregulated byproduct of tap water disinfection and a manufactured chemical used in chemical synthesis and as an ingredient in fire extinguishing fluids.

 

Health Concerns for Dibromomethane:

  • Occupational hazards
  • Cancer
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation

 

Bromodichloromethane:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2943

Status: Regulated – EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Bromodichloromethane is a disinfection byproduct from the trihalomethane (THM) family, and is formed when chlorine, chloramines or other disinfectants react with organic and inorganic matter in water. [read more]

Health Concerns for Bromodichloromethane:

  • Cancer

http://www.ewg.org/research/bottled-water-quality-investigation/walmart-and-giant-water-exceeds-safety-limits

Also in Walmart’s Sam’s Choice brand, lab tests found a cancer-causing chemical called bromodichloromethane at levels that exceed safety standards under California’s Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986 (Proposition 65, OEHHA 2008). EWG is filing suit under this act to ensure that Walmart posts a warning on bottles as required by law: “WARNING: This product contains a chemical known to the State of California to cause cancer.” The limit for this chemical under Proposition 65 is 2.5 ppb, using the state’s standard assumptions for water consumption; levels in Walmart’s water from Mountain View and Oakland ranged from 7.7 to 13 ppb.

Cis-1,3Dichloropropene:

Another one I had trouble finding – 1,3 Dichloropropene was more common

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1,3-Dichloropropene

1,3-Dichloropropene, sold under diverse trade names, is an organochlorine compound. It is colorless liquid with a sweet smell. It dissolves in water and evaporates easily. It is used mainly in farming as a pesticide, specifically as a preplant fumigant and nematicide. It is widely used in the US and other countries, but is in the process of being phased out in the European Union.[2]

Production, chemical properties, biodegradation

It is a byproduct in the chlorination of propene to make allyl chloride.[3]

It is usually obtained as a mixture of the geometric isomers, called Z-1,3-dichloropropene, and E-1,3-dichloropropene. Although it was first applied in agriculture in the 1950s, at least two biodegradation pathways have evolved. One pathway degrades the chlorocarbon to acetaldehyde via chloroacrylic acid.[4]

Safety

The TLV-TWA for 1,3-dichloropropene (DCP) is 1 ppm.[5] It is a contact irritant. A wide range of complications have been reported.[6]

Carcinogenicity

Evidence for the carcinogenicity of 1,3-dichloropropene in humans is inadequate, but results from several cancer bioassays provide adequate evidence of carcinogenicity in animals. In the US, the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has determined that 1,3-dichloropropene may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that 1,3-dichloropropene is possibly carcinogenic to humans. The EPA has classified 1,3-dichloropropene as a probable human carcinogen.[6]

Use

1,3-Dichloropropene is used as a pesticide in the following crops: [3]

1,3-Dichloropropene Use in Crops

Crop

Pounds (lb)

Primary Pesticide

Tobacco 12,114,887 Yes

Potatoes 12,044,736 Yes

Sugar Beets 5,799,613 Yes

Cotton 3,735,543 Yes

Peanuts 3,463,003 Yes

Sweet Potatoes 1,210,872 Yes

Onions 674,183 Yes

Carrots 531,752 Yes

Watermelons 133,801 No

Cantaloups 121,395 No

Cucumbers 76,735 No

Strawberries 71,753 No

Sweet Peppers 28,247 No

Melons 12,471 No

Blueberries 3,090 No

Asparagus 1,105 No

 

4-Methyl-2pentanone:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methyl_isobutyl_ketone

Production

Methyl isobutyl ketone is manufactured from acetone via a three-step process. Firstly acetone undergoes an aldol condensation to give diacetone alcohol, which readily dehydrates to give mesityl oxide. Mesityl oxide can then be hydrogenated to give MIBK

Uses

MIBK is used as a solvent for nitrocellulose, lacquers, and certain polymers and resins.[3]

Trans-1-3-Dichloropropene:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/whatsinyourwater/AK/DillinghamWaterSystem/2260197/trans-13-Dichloropropene/2224/

trans-1,3-Dichloropropene is used in chemical synthesis, in agriculture as a soil fumigant and nematocide, and as a corrosion inhibition agent.

Ethyl methacrylate:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2293

Status: Unregulated – EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Ethyl methacrylate is a chemical used in the manufacture of resins and plastics.

Health Concerns for Ethyl Methacrylate:

  • Allergies/immunotoxicity
  • Cancer
  • Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Developmental/reproductive toxicity
  • Neurotoxicity
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation
  • Miscellaneous

1,3 Dichloropropane:

Status: Unregulated – EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

1,3-Dichloropropane is an industrial solvent and an intermediate for manufacture of other chemicals.

Health Concerns for 1,3-Dichloropropane:

  • Cancer

2-Hexanone:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2269

Status: Unregulated – EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

2-Hexanone is a manufactured chemical formerly used in paint and paint thinner, to make other chemical substances, and to dissolve oils and waxes; it may form in tap water as a result of ozonation

 

Health Concerns for 2-Hexanone:

  • Developmental/reproductive toxicity
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Occupational hazards
  • Cancer
  • Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Miscellaneous
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation
  • Neurotoxicity

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2-Hexanone

2-Hexanone (methyl butyl ketone, MBK) is a ketone used as a general solvent and in paints. It dissolves cellulose nitrate, vinyl polymers and copolymers, and natural and synthetic resins. It has a very low MAK value and is recommended as a solvent because it is photochemically inactive.[5]

2-Hexanone is absorbed through the lungs, orally and dermally. Its metabolite 2,5-Hexanedione is neurotoxic.[6] Animal tests have shown that the neurotoxic effect of 2-hexanone may be potentiated by simultaneous administration of 2-butanone (methyl ethyl ketone, MEK).[7]

 

Dibromochloromethane:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2944

Status: Regulated – EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Dibromochloromethane is a disinfection byproduct from the trihalomethane (THM) family, and is formed when chlorine, chloramines or other disinfectants react with organic and inorganic matter in water. [read more]

Health Concerns for Dibromochloromethane:

  • Cancer

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dibromochloromethane

1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2986

Status: Unregulated – EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane is a synthetic chemical used in metal degreasing and as an intermediate in industrial chemical production.

Health Concerns for 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane:

  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Cancer
  • Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation

 

o-Xylene:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2997

Status: Regulated – EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

o-Xylene is a petroleum-derived solvent used in the printing, rubber, and leather industries; it is also used as a cleaning agent, a thinner for paint, and an ingredient in paints and varnishes.

Health Concerns for o-Xylene:

  • Neurotoxicity
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Allergies/immunotoxicity
  • Developmental/reproductive toxicity
  • Occupational hazards
  • Cancer
  • Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation
  • Miscellaneous
  • Ecotoxicology

 

Bromoform:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2942

Status: Regulated – EPA has established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Bromoform is a disinfection byproduct from the trihalomethane (THM) family, and is formed when chlorine, chloramines or other disinfectants react with organic and inorganic matter in water.

Health Concerns for Bromoform:

  • Cancer
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Occupational hazards
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation
  • Neurotoxicity

 

Isopropylbenzene (Cumene):

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cumene

Cumene is the common name for isopropylbenzene, an organic compound that is based on an aromatic hydrocarbon with an aliphatic substitution. It is a constituent of crude oil and refined fuels. It is a flammable colorless liquid that has a boiling point of 152 °C. Nearly all the cumene that is produced as a pure compound on an industrial scale is converted to cumene hydroperoxide, which is an intermediate in the synthesis of other industrially important chemicals, primarily phenol and acetone.

Production

Commercial production of cumene is by Friedel–Crafts alkylation of benzene with propylene. Cumene producers account for approximately 20% of the global demand for benzene.[3] Previously, solid phosphoric acid (SPA) supported on alumina was used as the catalyst. Since the mid-1990s, commercial production has switched to zeolite-based catalysts.[4]

Isopropylbenzene is stable, but may form peroxides in storage if in contact with the air. It is important to test for the presence of peroxides before heating or distilling. The chemical is also flammable and incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. Environmental laboratories commonly test isopropylbenzene using a Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GCMS) instrument.[5]

Health effects

A review by the US Department of Health and Human Services found that mice exposed to cumene fumes developed tumors in their lungs and livers. Cumene was anticipated to also be a human carcinogen and was added to the governmental organization’s list of carcinogens in 2014.[6]

1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroaethane:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2988

Status: Unregulated – EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane is a synthetic chemical used for metal degreasing and in the production of paint, cement, paint removers and moth-proofing products.

Health Concerns for 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane:

  • Cancer
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Occupational hazards
  • Developmental/reproductive toxicity
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation
  • Neurotoxicity

 

Bromobenzene:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2993

Status: Unregulated – EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Bromobenzene is an industrial solvent, an intermediate in chemical manufacturing and a motor oil additive; it may form as a byproduct of water disinfection.

Health Concerns for Bromobenzene:

  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
  • Cancer
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Miscellaneous
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation

 

1,2,3-Trichloropropane:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2414

Status: Unregulated – EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

1,2,3-Trichloropropane is an industrial solvent, degreasing agent, and paint and varnish remover.

Health Concerns for 1,2,3-Trichloropropane:

  • Cancer
  • Developmental/reproductive toxicity
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Occupational hazards
  • Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation
  • Neurotoxicity
  • Ecotoxicology

 

n-Propylbenzene:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2998

Status: Unregulated – EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

n-Propylbenzene is a solvent used in textile dyeing and printing, a pollutant from asphalt and landfill leachate, and a constituent of petroleum and coal.

Health Concerns for n-Propylbenzene:

  • Occupational hazards
  • Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Miscellaneous
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation

2-Chlorotoluene:

http://www.oehha.ca.gov/water/pals/2chlorotol.html

Water

PROPOSED ACTION LEVEL FOR 2-CHLOROTOLUENE

[06/07/00]

TO: David P. Spath, Ph.D., Chief

Division of Drinking Water and Environmental Management Branch

Department of Health Services

FROM: Robert A. Howd, Ph.D., Chief

Water Toxicology Unit

2-Chlorotoluene is also known as ortho-chlorotoluene and 2-chloro-1-methyl benzene. At 20oC, this chemical is a liquid with a vapor pressure of 2.7 Torr and a water solubility of 0.377 g/L. This compound is used as a solvent and a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of pesticides, dyes, and pharmaceuticals (U.S. EPA, 1985). Because of its vapor pressure, the chemical will typically exist in the vapor phase in the atmosphere. If released to water, a river model volatilization half-life is 3.4 hours with adsorption to suspended solids and sediments another favored fate. The compound is not likely to undergo hydrolysis or significantly bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms (HSDB, 2000).

The health and toxicity data available for 2-chlorotoluene are limited. 2-Chlorotoluene has a relatively low animal acute oral toxicity in (newborn) rats of >1600 mg/kg-day and in mice of 2500 mg/kg-day (IRIS, 2000). Sublethal acute effects in rats include moderate to marked weakness and vasodilation (ACGIH, 1980).

Gibson and associates (1974a) studied the toxicity of daily doses of 2-chlorotoluene in the dog. Sixteen beagles of each sex were divided into four groups, consisting of 5, 20, and 80 mg/kgbw-day 2-chlorotoluene and a fourth group given 5 percent aqueous acacia (0.5 mg/kgbw-day) as a vehicle control. Daily doses were administered by capsule. Treatment for male and female dogs was for 96 and 95 days, respectively. No treatment-related changes in body weight or effects on hematology, clinical biochemistry, or urinalysis occurred. Examinations included hematocrit, hemoglobin, red blood cells, white blood cells, prothrombin time, platelets, mean corpuscular volume, calcium, serum glucose, blood urea nitrogen, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase. There were no treatment-related effects on organ weights. For dogs receiving 5, 20, and 80 mg/kgbw-day 2-chlorotoluene there were no differences observed compared to controls, and the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) in the study was 80 mg/kgbw-day.

1,3,5 Trimethylbenzene:

http://toxipedia.org/display/toxipedia/1%2C3%2C5-Trimethylbenzene

1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene, also know as mesitylene, is an aromatic hydrocarbon as well as a volatile organic compound (VOC). It is a clear liquid with a strong, peculiar odor. Used most often in solvents and thinners, 1,3,5 trimethylbenzene production exceeds 1 million pounds per year in the United States.

Uses

1,3,5 Trimethylbenzene is found in the following products

Solvents

Paint thinner

Auto fuel

Dyes

Wood stain

Toxicity

Human Health Effects

Irritant to skin, eyes, and respiratory tract causing redness and pain.

Repeated and chronic exposure can lead to chronic bronchitis.

Continual occupational exposure has lead to nervousness, tension, anxiety, and asthmatic bronchitis.

Inhalation and aspiration can cause confusion, drowsiness, headache, sore throat, and vomiting

Environmental Effects

Half-life: vapor in air=11 hours; river=1.2 hours; lake=4.4 days.

It can have a high potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms.

 

Tert-Butylbenzene:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2426

Status: Unregulated – EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

tert-Butylbenzene is a pollutant from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and various industrial processes.

Health Concerns for tert-Butylbenzene:

  • Ecotoxicology
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation

 

1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2418

Status: Unregulated – EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene is a chemical intermediate, industrial solvent, and component of gasoline, coal tar and petroleum products.

Health Concerns for 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene:

  • Occupational hazards
  • Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
  • Cancer
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Neurotoxicity
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation
  • Miscellaneous

 

Sec-Butylbenzene:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2428

Status: Unregulated – EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

sec-Butylbenzene is a pollutant from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and various industrial processes.

Health Concerns for sec-Butylbenzene:

  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation

 

1,3-Dichlorobenzene:

Interesting info regarding Benzene by itself: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/hlthef/benzene.html

Hard to find info on this one! 

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2401

Dichlorobenzenes (total)

Status: Unregulated – EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Dichlorobenzenes are synthetic chemicals used to make a wide variety of industrial and household products.

Health Based Limits for Dichlorobenzenes (total)

Standard

Description

Level

Lifetime health-based limit, non-cancer risk Concentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for a lifetime of exposure. The Lifetime health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is based on exposure for a a 70-kg adult consuming 2 liters of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 60 ppb

Drinking Water Equivalent Level A lifetime exposure concentration protective of adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects, that assumes all of the exposure to a contaminant is from drinking water. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 3000 ppb

Children’s health-based limit for 1-day exposure Concentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic health effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 9000 ppb

Children’s health-based limit for 10-day exposure Concentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse, noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure. The Ten-Day health-based limit (or Health Advisory, HA) is typically set to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 9000 ppb

Testing Summary for Dichlorobenzenes

http://www.epa.gov/IRIS/subst/0447.htm – 1,3-Dichlorobenzene; CASRN 541-73-1

_II.  Carcinogenicity Assessment for Lifetime Exposure

Substance Name — 1,3-Dichlorobenzene

CASRN — 541-73-1

Last Revised — 09/01/1990

Section II provides information on three aspects of the carcinogenic assessment for the substance in question; the weight-of-evidence judgment of the likelihood that the substance is a human carcinogen, and quantitative estimates of risk from oral exposure and from inhalation exposure. The quantitative risk estimates are presented in three ways. The slope factor is the result of application of a low-dose extrapolation procedure and is presented as the risk per (mg/kg)/day. The unit risk is the quantitative estimate in terms of either risk per ug/L drinking water or risk per ug/cu.m air breathed. The third form in which risk is presented is a drinking water or air concentration providing cancer risks of 1 in 10,000, 1 in 100,000 or 1 in 1,000,000. The rationale and methods used to develop the carcinogenicity information in IRIS are described in The Risk Assessment Guidelines of 1986 (EPA/600/8-87/045) and in the IRIS Background Document. IRIS summaries developed since the publication of EPA’s more recent Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment also utilize those Guidelines where indicated (Federal Register 61(79):17960-18011, April 23, 1996). Users are referred to Section I of this IRIS file for information on long-term toxic effects other than carcinogenicity

4-Isopropyltoluene:

http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Isopropyltoluene

Isopropyltoluene, also known as 4-Isopropyltoluene or p-Cymene, is an industrial chemical used in the manufacture of paint, furniture, and other consumer goods.[1] It has also been found in sewage sludge.[2] It is a highly toxic chemical with very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.[3]

 

 

n-butylbenzene:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2422

Status: Unregulated – EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

n-Butylbenzene is an intermediate for chemical manufacturing and a raw material for liquid crystals.

Health Concerns for n-Butylbenzene:

  • Endocrine disruption
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

 

Hexachlorobutadiene:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2246

Status: Unregulated – EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Hexachlorobutadiene is an intermediate in manufacture of rubber compounds and fluorinated lubricants; it is used in numerous industrial applications as a solvent and a heat transfer liquid.

Health Concerns for Hexachlorobutadiene:

  • Cancer
  • Occupational hazards
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
  • Ecotoxicology

 

 

 

 

Naphthalene:

http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/chemical-contaminants/?file=contaminant&contamcode=2248

Status: Unregulated – EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

Naphthalene is an intermediate in chemical manufacturing, a moth repellent, a fungicide, and a pollutant from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels.

Health Concerns for Naphthalene:

  • Cancer
  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation
  • Developmental/reproductive toxicity
  • Occupational hazards
  • Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
  • Ecotoxicology

 

1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene:

Status: Unregulated – EPA has not established a maximum legal limit in tapwater for this contaminant.

1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene is a solvent and an intermediate for chemical manufacturing that was used historically as an insecticide for termite control.

Health Concerns for 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene:

  • Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
  • Cancer
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation